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What is desertification?
The spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils or climate change
What are effluents?
Waste materials, such as smoke, sewage or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it
Define: noxious substances
materials or gases which are very harmful to living beings
What is overgrazing?
- Permanent loss of plant cover due to the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow.
- Often happens when too many animals graze on limited range land
What is potable water?
Water that is safe to drink or be consumed
Define: water-born diseases
Those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through water.
When and where did the Syrian conflict begin?
Pro-democracy protests began in Deraa in March 2011, as a result of teen graffiti.
What is the name of the President of Syria
President Bashar al-Assad
Approximately how many rebel groups are there?
When did fighting in Syria reach the capital of Damascus?
What is the estimated number of people who have been killed in the Syrian conflict?
- 250,000 (as of August 2015)
- This includes nearly 13,000 children
What did the UN security council demand an end to in February 2014?
'the indescriminate emplyment of weapons in populated areas' (such as barrel bombs)
What are barrel bombs?
an improvised bomb typically made from a large barrel-shaped metal container that has been filled with high explosives, possibly shrapnel, oil or chemicals as well, and then dropped from a helicopter or airplane.
What war crimes have been committed by both the government and the rebel forces in Syria?
- Civilian suffering (preventing food/water)
- Enforced disappearances (abducting someone)
Define: conflict resolution
A way for two or more parties to find a peaceful solution to a disagreement among them. When a dispute arises, often the best course of action is negotiation to resolve the disagreement
What is a peace agreement?
A formal record which addresses the disputed incompatibility either by settling all or part of it or by clearly outlining a process for how to regulate incompatibility
What is a ceasefire?
A form of agreement made by warring parties which, unlike peace agreements, regulates the conflict behaviour of warring parties and does not resolve the issue that brought the parties to war in the first place
What is peacekeeping?
Active maintenance of a truce between communities or groups which may be deployed to avoid violence in solving incompatibilities
What is the UN Security Council?
15 UN Member states that have primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security
Who are the five permanent members on the UN Security Council?
Outline processes by which conflict resolution can take place
Local level = planning authorities who decide whether to allow or deny an application
International level = UN was founded to prevent and resolve international conflicts. Intentions are put into action by various agencies such as the UN Development Programme or the UN Security Council. They try and prevent deadly conflicts by attacking the source of the conflict and not the acts of violence
What is a UK planning application process?
- Application is first made to local authority planning officer who then decides whether to award planning permission.
- If permission is refused then the applicant can appeal, either to the local planning committee and if unsuccessful there to the DEFRA
- In addition, a developer can be asked to make modifications to the original proposal or to provide additional facilities to make the proposal more acceptable to the public/council
What are the three different types of conflict resolution?
What is negotiation as a way of conflict resolution?
- A formal or informal discussion of issues with the aim of producing an agreement.
- Can solve many different kinds of conflict from business to government and beyond
What is diplomacy as a way of conflict resolution?
- Negotiation between countries involving a trained negotiator called a diplomat.
- Most countries have a diplomatic service to maintain international relations.
How might cultural differences affect diplomacy and negotiations?
- Diplomats from different countries may have different negotiation styles, rules and methods meaning that they may offend another.
- Diplomats are trained to act reasonably and follow certain rules of behaviour so they don't cause offence
What is mediation as a way of conflict resolution?
- Mediation involves the groups at conflict meeting with an independent third party mediator who make sure that both sides are heard and understood.
- Mediation is required from local to international scale
Give two examples of mediation to help resolve conflicts
- 1. Norway mediated the Sri Lankan Civil War
- 2. The UN is a mediator in the Middle East
What elements could help bring about a conflict resolution? (3)
- Time limit so negotiation doesn't last too long
- Using non-bias information
- Sustainable solutions