Geography Conflicts Impact of conflict

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  1. What is desertification?
    The spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils or climate change
  2. What are effluents?
    Waste materials, such as smoke, sewage or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it
  3. Define: noxious substances
    materials or gases which are very harmful to living beings
  4. What is overgrazing?
    • Permanent loss of plant cover due to the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow.
    • Often happens when too many animals graze on limited range land
  5. What is potable water?
    Water that is safe to drink or be consumed
  6. Define: water-born diseases
    Those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through water.
  7. When and where did the Syrian conflict begin?
    Pro-democracy protests began in Deraa in March 2011, as a result of teen graffiti.
  8. What is the name of the President of Syria
    President Bashar al-Assad
  9. Approximately how many rebel groups are there?
    1000
  10. When did fighting in Syria reach the capital of Damascus?
    In 2012
  11. What is the estimated number of people who have been killed in the Syrian conflict?
    • 250,000 (as of August 2015) 
    • This includes nearly 13,000 children
  12. What did the UN security council demand an end to in February 2014?
    'the indescriminate emplyment of weapons in populated areas' (such as barrel bombs)
  13. What are barrel bombs?
    an improvised bomb typically made from a large barrel-shaped metal container that has been filled with high explosives, possibly shrapnel, oil or chemicals as well, and then dropped from a helicopter or airplane.
  14. What war crimes have been committed by both the government and the rebel forces in Syria?
    • Civilian suffering (preventing food/water)
    • Murder 
    • Torture 
    • Rape 
    • Enforced disappearances (abducting someone)
  15. Define: conflict resolution
    A way for two or more parties to find a peaceful solution to a disagreement among them. When a dispute arises, often the best course of action is negotiation to resolve the disagreement
  16. What is a peace agreement?
    A formal record which addresses the disputed incompatibility either by settling all or part of it or by clearly outlining a process for how to regulate incompatibility
  17. What is a ceasefire?
    A form of agreement made by warring parties which, unlike peace agreements, regulates the conflict behaviour of warring parties and does not resolve the issue that brought the parties to war in the first place
  18. What is peacekeeping?
    Active maintenance of a truce between communities or groups which may be deployed to avoid violence in solving incompatibilities
  19. What is the UN Security Council?
    15 UN Member states that have primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security
  20. Who are the five permanent members on the UN Security Council?
    • China 
    • France
    • Russia 
    • UK
    • USA
  21. Outline processes by which conflict resolution can take place
    Local level = planning authorities who decide whether to allow or deny an application

    International level = UN was founded to prevent and resolve international conflicts. Intentions are put into action by various agencies such as the UN Development Programme or the UN Security Council. They try and prevent deadly conflicts by attacking the source of the conflict and not the acts of violence
  22. What is a UK planning application process?
    • Application is first made to local authority planning officer who then decides whether to award planning permission.
    • If permission is refused then the applicant can appeal, either to the local planning committee and if unsuccessful there to the DEFRA
    • In addition, a developer can be asked to make modifications to the original proposal or to provide additional facilities to make the proposal more acceptable to the public/council
  23. What are the three different types of conflict resolution?
    • Negotiation
    • Diplomacy 
    • Mediation
  24. What is negotiation as a way of conflict resolution?
    • A formal or informal discussion of issues with the aim of producing an agreement.
    • Can solve many different kinds of conflict from business to government and beyond
  25. What is diplomacy as a way of conflict resolution?
    • Negotiation between countries involving a trained negotiator called a diplomat. 
    • Most countries have a diplomatic service to maintain international relations.
  26. How might cultural differences affect diplomacy and negotiations?
    • Diplomats from different countries may have different negotiation styles, rules and methods meaning that they may offend another.
    • Diplomats are trained to act reasonably and follow certain rules of behaviour so they don't cause offence
  27. What is mediation as a way of conflict resolution?
    • Mediation involves the groups at conflict meeting with an independent third party mediator who make sure that both sides are heard and understood. 
    • Mediation is required from local to international scale
  28. Give two examples of mediation to help resolve conflicts
    • 1. Norway mediated the Sri Lankan Civil War
    • 2. The UN is a mediator in the Middle East
  29. What elements could help bring about a conflict resolution? (3)
    • Time limit so negotiation doesn't last too long
    • Using non-bias information
    • Sustainable solutions
Author:
shotguniall
ID:
313550
Card Set:
Geography Conflicts Impact of conflict
Updated:
2016-06-06 11:17:09
Tags:
geography conflicts conflict impact
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A2
Description:
lots about syria and conflict resolution
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