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- Socialisation is an essential process.
- Parsons (1955): argues that socialisation is needed for society to survive as it teaches us about appropriate behaviour.
- Durkheim (1895): argues that social control is also needed for society to survive as it reaffirms ideas of right and wrong.
- Socialisation is simply ideological conditioning- a device which ensures that children will accept inequality in later life (this is a Capitalist message). -punishing working class people more, not looking for crime in middle class areas
- Social control is used by Capitalists/Bourgeoisie to keep the working class/Proletariat in their place through harsher punishments and demonization. -working class stay working class
- Bourdieu (1984: argues that socialisation involves the transmission of cultural capital from one generation on another.
- This ensures inequality is maintained as middle class families have lots of cultural capital and working class little.
- Gramsci (1971): argues that individuals do not always fully accept capitalist ideology.
- We are indoctrinated with it during socialisation (for example to accept social inequality) yet our daily experience of exploitation makes us question Capitalist ideas and creates conflict for the individual.
- The agencies of socialisation have the responsibility of preparing children for adult society but as we are all individuals it means that children are not all raised with identical norms and values.
- Socialisation involves considerable conflict but this to be expected.
- Foucault (1991): Individuals are harmed by surveillance as this may change behaviour due to fear of sanctions and hinder their development as individuals.
- Socialisation contributes to gender inequality and reinforces gender divisions and gender stereotypes.
- Socialisation (both primary and secondary) passes on patriarchal ideology to children which is then reinforced throughout society through the formal and informal agencies of social control.