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The culture of a society is a way of life for it's members; the collection of ideas which they learn, share and transmit from generation to generation
There are 4 main senses that the word 'culture' is now used:
- 1) Culture as a state of mind: An individual who is cultured is someone who has some goals, aspirations to achieve or an idea of perfection. So far this is a quality which one comes to possess as to gain some intellectual and learning capabilities. This perspective has an elitist view of humanity and sees individuals as superior to others
- 2) A quality possessed by some whole societies, seen as more civilised and superior to others
- 3) A collection arts and intellectual work within a society
- 4) The whole way of life of people as described by Linton
Criticises mass/pop culture for being shallow and having no meaning
Argues that there is no clear distinction between mass cultures and high culture as some products of mass culture have now attained the status of classics
Global culture does not exist because people do not share a common lifestyle around the globe
Because of postmodernism, we are having an increase in global culture because our local culture is becoming more Americanized e.g. drinking Starbucks coffee or checking Facebook
- Defines subculture
- Subcultures bind together like minded individuals who feel marginalised by mainstream society and allows them to develop their own sense of identity.
- Each subculture is spectacular; it creates a spectacle and intends to get noticed
- Youth groups are mot distinct subcultures but neo-tribes - loose groupings of young people who come together in a particular setting to express particular tastes.
- They are not a coherent group and adopt different identities in different settings
- A shared culture is necessary for a society to run smoothly through social consensus
- This shared culture is passed down from generation to generation
- Most people must conform to the shared culture to avoid anarchy
- People who do not conform, risk punishment from the rest of society due to breaking the norms and values of that society