Micro Lecture Test 2

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  1. Requirements for bacterial growth
    • Temp pH (between 6.5-7.5)
    • osmotic pressure
    • chemicals (carbon, nitrogen, sulfur. Phosphorus, trace elements)
  2. Growth occurs only where high concentrations of O2 have diffused into the medium
    Obligate Aerobes – Oxygen Required
  3. Growth is best where most O2 is present, but occurs throughout tube
    Facultative Anaerobes – Both aerobic and anaerobic, greater with O2
  4. Growth occurs only where there is no O2
    Obligate Anaerobes – Only Anaerobic, ceases in the presence of O2
  5. Growth occurs evenly; O2 has no effect
    Aerotolerant Anaerobes – Only Anaerobic, but continues in the presence of O2
  6. Growth occurs only where a low concentration of O2 has diffused into medium
    Microaerophiles – Only Aerobic growth, O2 required in low concentrations
  7. Biofilms: what they are and what they do
    • Microbial communities
    • Usually found on solid substrates submerged in or exposed to an aqueous solution
    • Cell to cell communication allows bacteria to coordinate their activity forming a functional community
    • Resists antimicrobials
  8. What does a buffer do?
    maintains pH by neutralizing acid (alkalinity)
  9. time required for a bacterial population to double
    generation time
  10. Name the phases of bacterial growth
    • lag phase
    • exponential phase
    • stationary phase
    • death phase
  11. What happens in the lag phase of bacterial growth?
    starts to produce enzymes
  12. What happens in the exponential phase of bacterial growth?
    increase in population (doubles replication)
  13. What happens in the stationary phase of bacterial growth?
    Using up nutrients (the number of bacteria dividing equals the number of bacteria dying)
  14. What happens in the death phase of bacterial growth?
    No replication
  15. removing vegetative pathogens from hard surfaces, not endospores
  16. antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue to reduce the possibility of infection
  17. killing microbes
  18. inhibiting, not killing microbes (whatever is left continues to grow)
  19. removing all microbial life
  20. killing organisms that cause illness
    commercial sterilization
  21. The effectiveness of disinfectant treatment depends on:
    • Number of microbes
    • Environment (organic matter, temp, biofilms)
    • Time of exposure
    • Microbial characteristics
    • Temperature
  22. What are the various ways to sterilize?
    • Heat
    • Filtration
    • Low Temp Freezing
    • Radiation
    • Chemicals
  23. Name three common chemicals for sterilization
    • Phenols: Lysol
    • Alcohols: Isopropyl Alcohol
    • Halogens: Betadine
  24. population of cells derived from a single cell that are identical
  25. genetically different cells within a species
  26. A subset of a bacterial species differing from other bacteria of the same species by some minor but identifiable differences
    DNA fingerprinting
    DNA Hybridization
    Strain Differences
  27. What are the Phenotypic Identification Methods?
    • Determines type of protein made
    • Determines when it will turn on and off (how it controls the gene)
  28. Serology: Slide agglutination test
    • Technique relying on specific interaction between antibodies and antigens
    • Some available for rapid detection (gonorrhea) Bacteria A vs Bacteria B
    • protein attaches or not
  29. What is Burkholderia and why it is dangerous in the hospital?
    • Betaproteobacteria
    • Extraordinary nutritional spectrum
    • Degrades more than 100 different organic molecules
    • May grow in disinfectant
    • Can live on a variety of items
  30. What is an opportunistic pathogen?
    • Live outside normal habitat
    • Cause problems outside their habitat
  31. What are the characteristics of Enterobacteriales (enterics)?
    • Facultatively anaerobic
    • Normal part of the gut flora found in the intestines of humans
    • Gram-negative
  32. Name some examples of Enterobacteriales (enterics):
    • Esherichia coli
    • Salmonella – typhoid, salmonellosis Shigella - dysentary
    • Klebsiella – K pneumonia – most common nosocomial URI
  33. Characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • forms biofilms
    • resistant to most antibiotics
  34. Characteristics of Enterobacter:
    • most frequently isolated in hospitalized patients
    • opportunistic
  35. Characteristics of Shigella:
    usually the cause of epidemics of dysentery
  36. Characteristics of Bacillus:
    • gram+
    • endospore producing
    • obligate anaerob
    • forms capsules
    • anthrax
  37. Characteristics of E. Coli
    • transmission through food/water
    • provides vitamin K
  38. Characteristics of Klebsiella:
    • rod-shaped bacteria
    • prominent polysaccharide-based capsule
    • Pneumonia
  39. The bacteria that causes ulcers?
    Heliobacter Pylori
  40. Campylobacter jejuni; why is it important?
    • Main cause of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.
    • Importance: produces a toxin that hinders cells from dividing and activation the immune system
  41. Staphylococcus; examples of what it causes and what makes it so dangerous
    • Causes staph aureus, MRSA
    • virulent
    • Produces numerous toxins that allows it to damage tissue
    • Develops ABX resistance
  42. Streptococcus, how to distinguish between beta, alpha, gamma
    • Beta-hemolytic: leaves a clear zone around colony
    • ·Strep throat
    • Alpha-hemolytic: forms a green zone around colony
    • ·Pneumonia
    • Gamma-hemolytic: no hemolysis
  43. General Characteristics of Viruses
    • Obligatory (obligated to be in a cell to grow and reproduce
    • Contain DNA or RNA
    • Contains a protein coat
    • Most viruses infect only specific types of cells in one host
    • Host range determined by specific host attachment
  44. What determines which cells a virus binds to (infects)
    • Receptor on a host cell site (ligand) attaches to virus binding site
    • Only binds to certain cells
    • If it can’t get into the cell it can’t replicate
  45. Name the steps of Multiplication of animal virus’
    • Attachment
    • Entry
    • Uncoating
    • Biosynthesis
    • Maturation
    • Release
  46. What is attachment in the multiplication process of animal viruses
    attachment to cell membrane via protein receptors
  47. What is entry in the multiplication process of animal viruses
    receptor-mediated or fusion
  48. What is uncoating in the multiplication process of animal viruses
    separation of viral nucleic acid from protein coat in vesicle
  49. What is biosynthesis in the multiplication process of animal viruses
    production of nucleic acid and proteins
  50. What is maturation in the multiplication process of animal viruses
    • protein transported into nucleus
    • nucleic acid and proteins assemble
  51. What is release in the multiplication process of animal viruses
    virus transported to plasma membrane and released by budding or rupture
  52. virus remains in asymptomatic host cell for long periods
  53. Disease process occurs over a long period; generally fatal
  54. What are prions?
    proteins that are resistant to chemical biocides
  55. The study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated
  56. DNA complementary bases
    • T - A
    • G - C
  57. Three types of RNA
    • messenger
    • ribosomal
    • transfer
  58. What is the messenger function of RNA
    intermediate between DNA and Protein
  59. What is the Ribosomal function of RNA?
    reads mRNA and synthesizes protein
  60. What is the Transfer function of RNA?
    transports amino acids to the ribosome
  61. a change in the genetic material (single nucleotide mutation that may or may not affect the protein
  62. What are the causes of mutations?
    • mistake during DNA replication
    • environmental, chemical, radiation...
  63. What type of genetic transfer occurs during reproduction between generations of cells (parent à daughter cells
    vertical gene transfer
  64. What type of genetic transfer occurs during movement of DNA between bacteria and same generation (daughter à daughter cells)
    Horizontal gene transfer
  65. What type of genetic transfer occurs during  the uptake and incorporation of DNA from a dead cell into a living cell
  66. What type of genetic transfer occurs during a Transfer of a plasmid to another cell
  67. Name the flow of genetic information
    DNA - transcription - RNA - translation - protein
  68. The flow of genetic information when DNA converted to RNA
  69. The flow of genetic information when RNA converted to protein
  70. The flow of genetic information when duplication of DNA making 2 chromosomes from 1
  71. Cocci and Bacilli are gram?
    gram +
  72. This type of bacteria:
    Cannot be gram stained
    Distinctive cell wall: outer most layer is not LPS but a waxy water resistant layer
    Few antimicrobial drugs can enter the cell
    Mycobacterium: M. Tuberculosis, M. Leprae
  73. Evaluation of disinfectants by the disk-diffusion method
    • Zone of inhibition
    • Gram+ zone reacts to all Gram-
    • E-Coli: chlorine and phenylphenol Pseudomonas: chlorine only
  74. Genus Mycobacterium, Species?
    M. Tuberculosis
  75. Genus Escherichia; Species ?
    E. Coli
  76. Genus Salmonella; Species ?
    S. Enterica
  77. Genus Pseudomonas; Species?
    P. Aeruginosa
  78. Genus Herpes Simplex Virus; Species ?
    HSV1, HSV2...
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Micro Lecture Test 2
2016-01-01 23:46:49
Micro Lecture Test

Micro Lecture Test 2
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