Cardio.5- Cardiac Phys

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  1. With clock face analogy, where are the four chambers of the heart located on a left lateral radiograph?
    • 12-3 LA
    • 3-6 LV
    • 6-9 RV
    • 9-12 RA
  2. What are the layers of the pericardial sac? (4)
    parietal pericardium (outer fibrous layer), visceral pericardium (inner serous layer), pericardial space, liquor pericardii
  3. Everything "behind the heart" in the CVS.
    arterial system
  4. The portion of the CVS between arteries and the tissues of the body.
    capillary system
  5. Everything "in front of the heart" in the CVS.
    venous system
  6. Can the auricles be evaluated on radiography?
    no- they are superimposed on the atria
  7. What are the layers of the heart from superficial to deep? (7)
    parietal pericardium--> visceral pericardium--> pericardial space--> liquor pericardii--> epicardium--> myocardium--> endocardium
  8. The left ventricle has is _______-shaped and has a relatively _______ endocardial surface.
    bullet; smooth
  9. Describe the location and anatomy of the mitral valve.
    left AV valve; bi-leaflet
  10. Describe the location and anatomy of the aortic valve.
    between left ventricle and aorta; tri-leaflet
  11. What structures are on the walls of the left ventricle? (3)
    false tendons, 2 large papillary muscles, chordae tendineae
  12. What is a false tendon?
    band of nerve fibers from septum to free wall of the left ventricle
  13. The cardiac apex is the ___________.
    left ventricle
  14. The right ventricle is ______-shaped and has a relatively _________ endocardial surface.
    U; rough
  15. What makes the endocardial surface of the right ventricle rough?
    trabeculae carneae
  16. What is the trabecula septomarginalis?
    moderator band connecting ventricular wall to septum that allows coordinated contraction of the heart
  17. What structures are on the walls of the right ventricle? (5)
    chordae tendineae, tranbeculae carneae, trabecular septomarginalis, several small papillary muscles, supraventricular crest
  18. What is the supraventricular crest?
    separates the inflow and outflow tracts of the right ventricle
  19. Describe the location and anatomy of the tricuspid valve.
    right AV valve; bi-leaflet
  20. Describe the location and anatomy of the pulmonic valve.
    between right ventricle and pulmonary artery; tri-leaflet
  21. What are papillary muscles?
    muscles that cause opening of AV valves; connect b/w chordae tendineae and free walls of ventricles
  22. What are chordae tendineae?
    bands from the papillary muscles to the AV valves, participating in opening of AV valves
  23. What are the semilunar valves?
    tri-leaflet valves between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery [pulmonic valve] and between the left ventricle and aorta [aortic valve]
  24. Which AV valve has fibrous continuity?
    mitral valve; the outlet portion of the LV is deficient posteriorly, so that the aortic and mitral valves are in fibrous continuity
  25. The trabceula septomarginalis is between the ___________ and the __________.
    tricuspid valve; apex of right ventricle
  26. Semilunar valves are ___________; AV valves are ___________.
    tri-leaflet; bi-leaflet
  27. What are the 2 segments of the atria, and what are the characteristics of the endocardial surfaces of each?
    • atrium proper- smooth surface
    • auricle (appendage)- rough surface due to pectinate muscles
  28. What enters the left atrium?
    4-7 pulmonary veins
  29. What enters the right atrium? (2)
    venae cavae, large coronary vein (coronary sinus)
  30. What and where is the oval fossa?
    the remnant of the embryonic foramen ovale; depression in the right atrium of the heart at the level of the interatrial septum
  31. What and where are pectinate muscles?
    parallel ridges of muscle in the walls of the auricles (bigger/denser in right auricle)
  32. What arteries supply the heart?
    right and left coronary arteries
  33. What are the branches of the left coronary artery?
    circumflex branch, left anterior descending coronary artery (paraconal branch), septal branch
  34. What is the major species difference between branching of the aortic arch in [dogs/cats/pigs] and [cattle/horses/llamas]?
    • [dogs/cats/pigs] aortic arch gives rise to brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery
    • [cattle/horses/llamas] aortic arch gives rise t only the brachiocephalic trunk (brachiocephalic trunk gives rise to left subclavian artery)
  35. What is the venous drainage of the tissues of the heart?
    great cardiac vein
  36. Where does the azygous vein run?
    dorsal structure of the thorax that drains into the cranial vena cava
  37. What is the thoracic duct?
    lymphatic drainage running ventral to the azygous vein and through the esophageal hiatus and draining into the left subclavian vein
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  44. Describe the right ventricular inflow tract and outflow tract.
    inflow from right atrium through tricuspid valve--> goes around supraventricular crest (U-shape)--> outflow through pulmonary valve to pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries
  45. Describe the left ventricular inflow and outflow tracts.
    inflow from left atrium through mitral valve--> bullet shaped--> outflow through aortic valve to aorta
  46. What is a roentgenogram?
    an X-ray
  47. What is an angiogram?
    X-ray after introducing a radiopaque substance to the arteries
  48. What is the left anterior descending coronary artery?
    aka paraconal branch of the left coronary artery
Card Set:
Cardio.5- Cardiac Phys
2016-01-25 14:51:35
vetmed cardio

vetmed cardio.5
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