Resp1- Resp Phys 1

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  1. What are the 2 meanings of respiration?
    utilization of oxygen in cellular metabolism, exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w the organism and its external environment
  2. What are the basic respiratory functions of the lungs?
    supply O2 to tissues via circulation, eliminate CO2 produced by tissue metabolism, regular blood pH and acid-base balance
  3. What are the goals of gas exchange in the lung? (3)
    get O2 from environment to blood, get CO2 from blood to environment, match these processes to metabolic demand
  4. What are the 3 processes required for normal gas exchange in the lung?
    alveolar ventilation, bi-directional diffusion of O2 and CO2 (b/w alveolar lumen and capillary blood), perfusion of metabolizing tissues
  5. What NS influences are required for lung function? (2)
    phrenic and intercostal motor nerves
  6. Normal ranges for partial pressure of oxygen in the artery (Pa) can be affected by... (4)
    species, age, diet, techniques used by different reference labs
  7. What are the 2 zones of the lower airways? What does each encompass?
    • conducting zone- trachea to terminal bronchioles [no gas exchange- piping]
    • respiratory zone- respiratory bronchioles to alveolar saccules [site of gas exchange]
  8. In which zone of the lower airways does gas exchange occur?
    respiratory zone (NEVER IN CONDUCTING ZONE)
  9. What are the smallest airways in which gas exchange does NOT occur?
    terminal bronchioles
  10. Describe histology of traditional respiratory epithelium. (3)
    pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells with cilia, goblet cells, serous cells
  11. Describe the histology of the trachea.
    C-shaped cartilage rings joined at ends by trachealis smooth muscle
  12. Describe the histology of the bronchi.
    cartilage forms flattened interconnected plates
  13. Describe the histology of the bronchioles. (2)
    prominent smooth muscle bands in submucosa, no cartilage
  14. What are the functions of the conduction airways? (4)
    low resistance pathway for flow of air, mucociliary and phagocyte clearance of foreign matter/pathogens, warm and moisten air, vocalization
  15. The majority of the surface area of the alveolar epithelium are __________.
    alveolar type I cells
  16. What is the primary purpose of alveolar type I cells?
    gas exchange barrier (contain few organelles)
  17. What are the functions of alveolar type II cells? (3)
    produce surfactant lipids and proteins (lamellar bodies), progenitors for AT I cells, actively regulate depth of alveolar lining fluid by ion transport
  18. Pleural space is __________; pleural fluid has ___________.
    potential space; negative pressure
  19. What is the purpose of the negative pressure in pleural fluid?
    counteracts elastic recoil pressure of expanded lung tissue to prevent lung collapse
  20. The negative pressure in pleural fluid is produced by...
    draining action of lymphatics, which pump fluid out of pleural space [constant suction]
  21. What are the goals of the pulmonary defense system? (3)
    exclude pathogens/particulates from distal lungs, minimize damage caused by agents that enter the lungs, heal damaged lung tissue without scarring
  22. What anatomic features of the respiratory tract act as non-specific defense mechanisms?
    turbulent air flow through nasal passages to keep larger inhaled particles in nasal mucus-> mucociliary elevator
  23. What are the layers of the mucociliary elevator? (2)
    upper viscous mucopolysaccharide layer, underlying serous (saline) layer
  24. What is the purpose of the viscous mucopolysaccharide layer of the mucociliary elevator? (2)
    traps particulates and limits access of pathogens to epithelial cells
  25. What is the purpose of the serous layer of the mucociliary elevator? (3)
    dilute pollutants, contain defensins, thin to allow movement of cilia
  26. Proteins that opsonize bacteria and facilitate phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages.
    surfactant proteins A and D
  27. How do the alveolar epithelial cells contribute to innate immunity?
    produce interferon and chemokines
  28. How do the alveolar macrophages contribute to innate immunity? (3)
    phagocytose bacteria/dead cells/debris, kill bacteria/infected cells, release inflammatory mediators
  29. What innate immune cells produce elastases and collagenases to degrade damaged lung tissue?
    recruited neutrophils
  30. Image Upload 1
    Image Upload 2
  31. Exchange of air b/w atmosphere and alveoli by bulk flow.
  32. Exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w alveolar air and alveolar capillary blood by diffusion.
    gas exchange at lung tissue level
  33. Transfer of O2 and CO2 through pulmonary and systemic circulation by bulk flow.
  34. Exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w tissue capillary blood and cells by diffusion.
    gas exchange at body tissue level
  35. Non-random movement from high total pressure to low total pressure.
    bulk flow
  36. What processes of respiration take place by bulk flow?
    ventilation (exchange of air b/w atmosphere and alveoli) and  transport (exchange of O2 and CO2 through pulmonary and systemic circulation)
  37. Random movement from high partial pressure to low partial pressure.
  38. What processes in respiration take place by diffusion?
    exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w alveolar air and capillary blood; exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w tissue capillary blood and cells
  39. Bulk flow is __________ of composition of gas; diffusion is __________ of composition of gas.
    independent; dependent
  40. The hypothetical pressure that a particular gas in a mixture of gases would exert if it was present alone in a given volume.
    partial pressure
  41. Gas pressure is proportional to... (2)
    temperature, concentration
  42. Describe the premise of Dalton's Law of partial pressures.
    In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by each gas is independent of the pressure exerted by the other gases present.
  43. What is normal barometric pressure (PB)? Therefore, what is the normal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)?
    • PB= 760 mmHg
    • PO2= 760 x 0.21 (normal value)= 160 mmHg
  44. What are the important gases in the alveolar lumen? (3)
    H2O, O2, CO2
  45. The fraction of O2 and CO2 in the alveolar lumen depends on the...
    rate of alveolar ventilation (V.A) relative to rates of perfusion (Q.) and tissue metabolic activity.
  46. The sum of the partial pressures of all gases present will equal _______.
    atmospheric pressure (PB)
  47. The sum of all fractions of gas molecules present will equal ______.
  48. How does the partial pressure of H2O affect the partial pressure of O2 at different levels of the respiratory tract?
    • Inhalation of dry atmospheric air
    • Trachea- air is warmed and moistened- decrease PO2 to 150mmHg (must subtract PH2O from PB)
    • Alveoli- contain both H2O and CO2; also, PO2 decreases as it is taken up into circulation
  49. Why is PA O2 lower than the PI O2?
    because some inspired O2 leaves the alveoli and enters the pulmonary capillaries to be delivered to body tissues
  50. Why is PA CO2 significantly higher than PI CO2?
    because CO2 enters alveoli from pulmonary capillaries to be exhaled
  51. What is the approximate ratio between the amount of CO2 entering alveoli from blood and the amount of O2 entering blood from alveoli?
  52. Why can PA CO2 be measured from Pa CO2, but PA O2 cannot be measured from Pa O2?
    CO2 is highly diffusable so blood and alveolus equilibrate by the time blood reaches the distal end of the capillary; O2 equilibration is MUCH slower
  53. What are factors that affect the PA O2? (3)
    PI O2 (usually constant unless change altitude), V.A (rate of alveolar ventilation), rate of bodily O2 consumption (exercising?)

    [overall, rate of O2 consumption to rate of alveolar ventilation]
  54. ?????????What is the rule of thumb approximation for the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference?
    Pa O2 ~ 5 x FI O2 (21%) ~ 105mmHg
  55. What are factors that affect PA CO2? (3)
    PI CO2 (essentially 0- so not really), rate of alveolar ventilation (ie. hypoventilation increases PA CO2), rate of bodily CO2 production

    [overall, rate of CO2 generation to alveolar ventilation]
  56. Alveolar ventilation and Pa CO2 are ___________ related.
  57. If alveolar ventilation decreases (hypoventilation) with a constant CO2 production, what happens to Pa CO2? What about Pa O2?
    Pa CO2 increases; Pa O2 decreases
  58. What are the 3 phases of the respiratory cycle?
    • inspiration (ribs expand, diaphragm contracts)
    • expiration (ribs contract, diaphragm relaxes)
    • post-expiration (static)
  59. What is required for appropriate spontaneous respiration?
    coordinated activity of central and peripheral NS and the musculoskeletal system (nasal muscles, intercostal muscles, diaphragm, abdominal wall muscles, ribs)
  60. What facilitates the movement of air from the atmosphere into the alveoli by bulk flow?
    PA (partial pressure of the alveoli) continually cycles above and below PB (partial pressure of atmosphere); PA is altered by changes in lung volume (VL), which is facilitated by the muscles of respiration
  61. On inspiration, VL ________, causing PA to _______ relative to PB, thus...
    increases; decreases; creating a pressure gradient so air can flow from the atmosphere to the alveoli.
  62. On expiration, VL __________, causing PA to ___________ relative to PB, thus...
    decreases; increase; creating a pressure gradient for air to flow from the alveoli to the atmosphere.
  63. Lung volume (VL) depends on... (2)
    transpulmonary pressure (pressure difference b/w inside and outside lungs), lung compliance (ex. normal vs. fibrosis)
  64. Balance position at which the opposing forces of the lungs and intercostal muscles.
    functional residual capacity (FRC)
  65. What effect does pus in the pleural cavity have?
    decreases the transpulmonary pressure due to increased pleural fluid pressure, thus effectively decreasing the lung volume
  66. The functional residual capacity (FRC) is responsible for creating the ________ as the ___________.
    vacuum; pleural space is sealed (pleural fluid pressure is negative)
  67. Why does a change in transpulmonary pressure alter the lung volume?
    as chest expands on inspiration, pleural fluid pressure decreases, causing the transpulmonary pressure to increase (greater difference b/w pressure inside and outside of lungs- more pressure within lungs than pleural space); therefore, lung volume increases to overcome recoil pressure
  68. If transpulmonary pressure increases, lung volume ___________.
    increases (higher pressure inside lung than outside lung, in pleural space)
  69. If transpulmonary pressure decreases, lung volume ___________.
    decreases (higher pressure outside lung in pleural space than inside lung).
  70. Describe the sequence of changes in VL and air flow that occurs during the respiratory cycle.
    change in chest volume alters PTP--> change in PTP alters VL--> change in VL results in altered PA--> change in PA determines direction of airflow into or out of lungs
  71. What are the consequences of inspiratory muscle movements? (7)
    thoracic wall moves away from lungs (increasing intrapleural space)--> increase TPL--> PTP now exceeds lungs' recoil pressure (lungs want to be small)--> lungs expand (increased VL)--> increased alveolar size--> decreased PA--> pressure gradient increased so air moves into lungs
  72. Describe the sequence of events of expiration at rest.
    ribs and diaphragm passively decrease size of thoracic cavity--> increased PPL (pleural fluid pressure)--> decreased TPT (transpulmonary pressure)--> lungs passively recoil to original volume--> reduction in VL compresses alveoli and PA increases--> expulsion of air
  73. How is expiration of larger air volumes achieved during exercise?
    {normally expiration is passive} in exercise, second set of expiratory intercostal muscles pulls ribs down and in and abdominal muscles force diaphragm into thorax--> active decrease in thoracic volume and active expiration of air
Card Set:
Resp1- Resp Phys 1
2016-01-14 00:26:01
vetmed resp1

vetmed resp1
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