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Name the seven properties of life:
Explain what each of the properties mean.
- 1- Reproduction
- 2- Response to Environment
- 3- Energy Processing
- 4- Growth and Development
- 5- Order
- 6- Adaptation
What are emergent properties?
Emergent properties are the result of the different levels of specific arrangements and interactions of their parts. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
What is the unit of life? Name the types of this unit.
The main unit of life is the cell. There are prokaryotic (ex. bacteria) and eukaryotic (human, animal, plant) cells.
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
- Prokaryotic cells form bacteria and are very simple. They consist of only DNA and a membrane.
- Eukaryotic cells form humans, animals, plants, protists, ect and are far more complex. They consist of organelles, nucleus (contained by membrane, and DNA.
What is a genome?
A genome is a collection of genetic material (DNA forming genes, composed by nucleotides) forming genetic instructions.
What are the three higher levels that life can be organized into, and what are these levels called?
The three domains are bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
What are the differences between the different domains?
Eukarya- Consist of four subgroups (protists, kingdom plantae, kingdom fungi and kingdom animalia) and are made of eukaryotic cells.
Bacteria- Consist of prokaryotic cells
Archaea- Consist of prokaryotic cells and live in hostile, extreme environments.
What is Darwin credited for and what are some examples we can see today?
Darwin is credited for the mechanism of natural selection. Natural selection is the survival of the best suited/strongest organisms which lead to procreation of these organisms and the passing of the genes over time. An example of this is
How would you define life?
Life can be defined by the seven properties and principles associated with life (reproduction, process of energy, growth and development, adaptation, response to environment, order, and regulation).
What is a proteome?
A proteome is the full protein set. These are encoded by genomes and there are far more different proteins in humans than genes. (page 249)
How is life categorized?
- Using domains.
- Three main domains are bacteria, eukarya and archaea.
What are the subcategories of eukarya cells, and what is different about each of the categories? How are these cells organized?
- Protists- consist of a diverse collection of mostly single celled organisms.
- Kingdom plantae- consist of plants using photosynthesis
- Kingdom Fungi- represented by mushrooms, gains nutrients from decomposing organisms and organic wastes.
- Kingdom Animalia- Animals, these gain nutrition by eating the food source.
Organized by how they obtain nutrition.
What are protists?
Microorganisms, type of eukarya
Give an example of a hypothesis and a theory.
Hypothesis- proposed explanation for set of observations. Example: The flashlight does not work because the batteries are dead.
Theory- Broader than a hypothesis and generally more widely accepted due to growing scientific evidence. Example: Theory
What explains the unity and diversity of live?
Evolution and natural selection
What is an atom?
Comprised of a proton, neutron and electron, this structure is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. Named from a greek word meaning "indivisible"
Explain the differences between a protron, neutron and electron.
Protons contain a positive charge and are stationed in the center of the atom. The number of protons in an element determines the elements atomic number.
Neutrons do not have a charge and also stay in the center. The number of neutrons plus the number of protons equals the mass number
Electrons are very small but very important, containing a negative charge. Unless otherwise indicated, an atom has the same number of protons and electrons.
What is the atomic mass?
Atomic mass is found by adding the number of neutrons and protons an element contains. This number can change for a particular element if its an isotope.
What is the atomic number?
The atomic number signifies the number of protons an atom has. Usually an element has the same number of protons as electrons, making it a net charge of 0.
What is an isotope? Are these harmful or helpful and why?
An isotope is an atom that has a different number of neutrons compared to the standard element atom. The number of protons stays the normal amount.
These are harmful (due to radiation from the unstable nature of isotopes) and helpful (used in a lot of diagnostic imaging, as well as for radiation cancer treatments).
What is atomic mass?
An atoms atomic mass is determined by adding the neutron and protons and is expressed in daltons (same as the atomic number).
How do electron shells work?
- The first two electron shells can hold two electrons before becoming full. The rest of the shells can hold up to eight electrons. The first shell contains one orbital and the rest contain up to four oribitals.
- The valence shell is the outermost shell an atom has. The number of electrons in the valence shell are referred to as the valence electrons.
Why are valence shells important?
Atoms want to have full valence shells. The sharing, giving or taking of the valence electrons to have a full valence shell are the driving force behind chemical bonds and reactions.
What is a covalent bond?
When participating in a covalent bond, atoms share electrons needed to complete the valence shell. However, even though the atoms are sharing the electrons, sometimes one may have a stronger pull called electronegativity.
What is it called when atoms share electrons?
What is it called when one atom in a covalent bond pulls stronger on the electrons than the other?
What is the difference between non-polar and polar covalent bonds?
Non-polar bonds exist when two atoms are pulling on the shared electrons with the same force. Here the atoms have similar electronegativity.
Polar covalent bonds occur when one atom pulls harder than the other, resulting in the electrons being towards the strong atom more. This creates negative electronegativity in the stronger atom and positive electronegativity in the weaker atom.
What is an ionic bond? What effect does this have on participating atoms?
In an ionic bond, atoms actually give up or steal the electrons in order to have a full valence shell. This results in atoms have a positive (giving away electrons) or negative (taking extra electrons) charge.
Name one example of an ionic bond.
Sodium chloride (Na+Cl-)
What type of bonds share electrons, what type gives/takes electrons, and what type of bond is weak?
- share= covalent
- give/take= ionic
- weak= hydrogen
Why are hydrogen bonds important?
- They allow for adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension.
- They allow for evaporative cooling.
What are hydrogen bonds?
Hydrogen are weak bonds that occur in nature. This allows them to be strong (ice) when needed or weak (water, evaporation).
Give two examples of a chemical bond.
2 H2 + O2 ----> 2 H2O
Na + Cl-------> Na+Cl-
How do you make a solution?
Combining a solute (being dissolved) and a solvent (dissolving agent).
When making a solution, what is the dissolving agent called? What is the substance being dissolved called?
- Dissolving agent- solvent
- Being dissolved- solute
What is it called if a solution uses water as the solvent?
An aqueous solution.
What is the difference between acids and bases? How do we measure acidity?
- Acids contain more hydrogen, bases contain more hydroxide (OH-)
- Acidity is measured using a pH (potential of hydrogen) scale.
What pH range should human blood be in?
Draw an atom that has a mass number of 8.
Draw an atom that has a mass number of six.
Draw an atom that has a mass number of six and has eight neutrons.
What is the pH (potential of hydrogen) for water?
What is an acidic pH? Basic pH?
Acidic pH ranges from 0-7, Basic ranges from 7-14
What elements make up about 96% of living matter?
Oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon.
What kind of elements are often added to food? Are they as important as other elements?
Trace elements. Yes!
What determines an elements chemical properties?
The distribution of electrons, especially those in the valence electron.
What kind of solutes dissolve in water?
Polar (charged) solutes/compounds. Hydrophillic.
What are buffers?
They regulate pH levels by absorbing or releasing hydrogen + depending on what is needed (more H+ is more acidic, less is more basic)
What is discovery-based science?
Discovery based science emphasizes analysis of large volumes of experimental data hoping to find new patterns/correlations leading to a hypothesis.
Ex. ? observing data on when birds fly north/south, leading to the hypothesis that it is for climate.
What is the effect of hydrolysis on carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are broken apart into two monosaccharides via hydrolysis.
What is the effect of dehydration reaction on two monosaccharides?
Monosaccharides are joined into carbohydrates via dehydration reaction.
How do carbohydrates break apart? How do they form, and what forms them?
Carbohydrates break apart via hydrolysis. They are composed of monosaccharides which are joined together to make carbohydrates via dehydration reaction.
What does it mean to be "water-loving?"
Hydrophillic, easily dissolves into water
What kind of ions and molecules easily dissolve into water?
Hydrophillic ions and molecules ("water loving"). These contain polar covalent bonds.
How do non-polar molecules react with water? Give an example
Non-polar molecules poorly dissolve into water and are "hydrophobic." An example is hydrocarbon.
What does it mean to be amphipathic? What may these form?
- - These have both polar/ionized regions at some sites and nonpolar regions at other sites.
- - These may form micelles (lipid molecules arranged in a spherical formation)
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all living organisms?
A) Hydrogen are weak bonds that occur in nature. This allows them to be strong (ice) when needed or weak (water, evaporation).
B) Emergent properties are the result of the different levels of specific arrangements and interactions of their parts. "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
C) Natural selection
D) DNA and a common genetic code
D) DNA and a common genetic code
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
What is the core idea that makes sense of all biology?
In an ecosystem, how is movement of energy similar to that of chemicals, and how is it different?
Both are passed from producers to consumers.
Energy enters as sunlight and leaves as heat, where chemicals arise from soil/air return to soil/air.
What is biology's vertical scale?
Vertical scale refers to hierarcy of biological organization. Going from molecules --> organelles --> cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems --> organisms --> populations --> communities --> ecosystem --> biosphere
What does biology's vertical scale have to do with emergent properties?
At each level, emergent properties arise from interaction and organization of component parts.
What does the horizontal scale of biology refer to?
horizontal scale of biology refers to the great diversity of both living and past organisms. These species are divided into three domains.
What are the key elements of scientific process?
observations about natural phenomena, questions, hypotheses, predictions, and tests.