Science Chapter 8

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  1. Electromagnetic radiation
    • Radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light
    • Such as visible light, radio waves, and X rays
  2. Refracting telescope
    • When a telescope uses a lens to collect the light from an object
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  3. Reflecting telescope
    • a telescope that uses a mirror to collect light from an object
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  4. Satellite
    • an artificial object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the moon or any other celestial body
    • Also a celestial body that orbits another body of a larger size
    • i.e. Moon is one of Earth's natural satellites
  5. Orbiters
    Observatories that orbit other celestial objects
  6. Solar nebula theory
    • The theory that describes how stars and planets form from contracting spinning disks of gas and dust
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  7. Star
    a celestial body made of up gases mostly hydrogen and helium
  8. Nebula
    • A vast cloud of gas and dusts
    • It might be the birthplace for stars and planets
  9. Protostar
    • a hot condensed object in the center of a nebula 
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  10. Nuclear fusion
    • The process when hydrogen nuclei form together to become helium nuclei
    • Generates energy
  11. Photosphere
    thee surface layer of the sun
  12. Sunspot
    an area of strong magnetic field on the photosphere
  13. Solar wind
    A stream of fast moving charged particles ejected from the sun into the solar system
  14. Solar flare
    • They happen when there is a complex group of sunspots 
    • It is when magnetic fields explosively eject intense streams of charged particles into space.
    • Streams are called solar wind
  15. Importance of the Sun
    • The sun rays provide us heat that we need to survive and sustain ourselves
    • Another thing it provides is visible light
  16. Luminosity
    • A star's total energy output per second
    • Its power in joules per second (J/s)
  17. Absolute magnitude
    The magnitude of a star we would observe if it was 32.6 light years away form Earth
  18. Spectroscope
    • an optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light
    • Usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate or digital detector
  19. Spectral lines
    • Certain wavelengths within a spectrum characterized by lines
    • Spectral lines identify specific chemical elements
  20. Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
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    • A graph that compares the qualities of stars
  21. Main sequence
    • It is a narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the upper left (bright and hot stars) to the lower right (dim and cool stars) 
    • The Sun is in the main sequence
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  22. White dwarf
    a small dim, hot star
  23. Supernova
    a massive explosion in which the entire outer portion of a star is blown off
  24. Neutron star
    A star that is so dense that only neutrons can exist in it's core
  25. How low-mass stars evolve
    • They consume their hydrogen slowly, as long as 100 billion years
    • During that time they lose significant mass (evaporating)
    • When they lose fuel they become white dwarfs 
    • Still hot, takes billions of years to cool down (becomes black dwarfs).
    • Universe not old enough for black dwarfs
  26. How intermediate-mass stars evolve
    • Consume hydrogen faster than low mass stars
    • over 10 billion years
    • When fuel gone core collapses and 
    • As core contracts temperature increases and the outer layers expand
    • Outer layers are cooler and look red 
    • It becomes a red giant and after layers disappear into space they become white dwarfs
    • The heavier elements formed were ejected into the universe and become new stars
  27. How high-mass stars evolve
    • Consumer fuel faster than low and intermediate stars
    • Core heats up to higher temperatures which means heavier elements form by fusion
    • When the core becomes iron, since it cannot release energy through fusion it violently collapses and the outer portion of the star will explode called a supernova
    • Supernova's can be millions of times brighter than the original star was
  28. Black hole
    • The leftovers of a supernova with a gravitational field so strong that nothing can escape it's pull
    • Not even light

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Author:
Anonymous
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314048
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Science Chapter 8
Updated:
2016-01-13 01:15:57
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Ms.Day science chapter 8
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