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When the constitution went into effect in 1789, the right to vote was restricted to ____
white, property owning men.
Five Stages of Expanding Suffrage
- The first stage of the struggle to extend voting rights came in the early 1800s
- -No State has a religious test for voting acts of 1810
- -Tax payment and property ownership qualification began to end
- The second major effect followed the civil war
- -The 15th amendment was intended to protect any citizen from being denied to vote based on race
- The third stage came with the 19th Amendment
- -It provided that one cannot be denied voting due to sex
- -Wyoming 1869
- A fourth major expansion occured in the 1960s
- -durring this period, federal courts focused on securing votes for African Americans in the electoral process(Voting Rights Act of 1965)
- -The 23rd Amendment, passed in 1961, added voters from D.C. to the electorate
- -The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, eliminated the poll tax for any federal election
- The fifth and latest expansion of the electorate came with the adoption of the 26th amendment in 1971.
- -it provides that no state can set the minimum age for voting at more than 18 years of age.
The Constitution place 5 restrictions on the ability of the State to exercise that power.
- Any person who can vote for representatives in their own state must be permitted to vote for representatives at the federal level
- No state can deprive a person the vote due to race
- No state can deprive a person the vote due to sex.
- No state can require payment of taxes to vote for federal offices
- No state can deprive any person who is at least 18yrs old
Any person who wants to vote must be able to satisfy qualifications based on three factors
- Residency- a person must have lived in a given state for a certain extended period of time before they can vote
- Age- the 26th amendment made it that at 18yrs of age you can vote in US.
States adopted residence requirements for two reasons
- Keep a political machine from bringing in outsiders to affect the election results
- Gives people a chance to settle in and learn more about the candidates and local issues.
Before 1970, only 4 states had laws in place for voting to be given to citizens under 21.
- Georgia -18- 1943
- Kentucky -18- 1955
- Alaska -19- 1959
- Hawaii -20- 1959
What was the fastest amendment to get ratified in U.S. history
the procedure of voter identification inteded to prevent fraudulent voting
All states except this one recuire that most citizens must be registered in order to cast a ballot in elections
These states do not have requirements to be registered roughly a month before the election date
Maine and Wisconsin
Typically, a prospective voter must register _________ and voters remain registered unless they move, decreases, commits a serious crime, or is put into a mental institution.
- his/her name
- , age,
- date of birth
- , present address,
- length of residence
Critics argue that _____ in the early 1900s when voter registration requirements began to spring up.
voting turnouts began to decline
This act allows citizens to register to vote when they applied or renewed their driver's license
Motor Voter Act
Literacy and tax payments, although not used anymore, once were a large contribution for suffrage qualification.
Today, no states have suffrage qualification based on literacy
Which state adopted the first literacy qualification in 1855 followed by Massachusettes in 1857.(Mississippi 1890 understanding clause)
Which court case banned literacy qualification
Oregon vs Mitchell 1970, 18 states affected
What were originally popular among those in the southern states as an effort to keeping African Americans out of the voting places
What eliminated poll taxes
The 24th amendment outlawed poll taxes and the Supreme court finally eliminated poll taxes across the board in 1966 with Harper vs Virginia Board of Elections
What was the first action taken to franchise African Americans was in 1870
- 15th Amendment
- The use of the white primary also disenfranchised blacks well into the 2oth century(outlawed Smith vs Allwright 1944)
The Supreme Court outlawed gerrymandering as a tactic for racial discrimination with ____
Gomillion vs Lightfoot 1960
The first of the laws passed by Congress to enforce the 15th Amendment was
Civil Rights Act of 1957
The Civil Rights Act of 1957
- created the U.S. Commission on civil rights
- job was in inquire into claims about voter discrimination
- gave the Attorney General the power to seek federal court order
Civil Rights act of 1960 added an additional safeduard
proveded the appointment of federal voting referees.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
- It outlawed discrimination in severla areas including job related matters
- Forbids the use of any voter registration or literacy requirement in an unfair or discriminatory manner
Voting Act of 1965
- This act made the 15th amendment a true effective part of constitution
- It called for the attorney general to challenge the constitution of the remaining poll taxes laws
- It also called for the suspension of literacy tests in any state or county where less than half of the electorate had been registered.
- The law gave federal officers the power to register voter and otherwise oversee the conduct of elections in those areas.
- The 1965 law also put into place a preclearance clause on actions taken by the States
The cases showed that following types of changes came into conflict with the prvision
- location of polls
- deadlines in the electoral process
- boundaries of election districts
- qualifications candidates must meet for office
The preclearnace clause was setup for 6 states
- south carolina
What case upheld the voting rights act of 1965
South Carolina vs. Katzenbach
Sociological Factors of voting
- religion/ethnic background
- family and other groups
Although significant in the past, party identification has lost its impact for several reasons
- Weakened Party Conditions
- Split ticket voting
In 2012 an estimated 221 million persons were of voting age but only _____ voted
In 2012, ____ people who could vote did not go out to the polls
Why dont people vote
- many are convinced that they make no difference
- many are too busy
- cumbersome election procedures
- time zone fallouts
Compare voters and non voters
- -higher level of income/education
- -well intigrated into the community
- -longtime residence
- -strong party identification
- -younger than 35
- -live in south and rural areas
- -men are less likely to vote than women
Voter behavior comes from 3 sources
- the results of elections
- the field of survey research
- studies of political socialization