CattleII1- Head/Oral Dz

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  1. What are clinical signs of diseases of the oral cavity and head? (7)
    respiratory embarrassment, CN deficits, asymmetry, salivation, pain, struggling/apprehension, nasal/ocular d/c (snotty nose, excessive lacrimation)
  2. Excessive salivation can result in __________ and may be caused by... (3)
    acidosis; trauma (foreign bodies), infectious disease(IBR), toxins.
  3. What are signs of dyspnea? (4)
    head/neck extended, mouth open, saliva/foaming, depression
  4. How do you diagnose oropharyngeal trauma?
    palpation of oral cavity, radiographs/US
  5. How can you treat oropharyngeal disease caused by trauma? (4)
    create a patent airway, NSAIDs/antibiotics, remove foreign body (if present), correct acid-base disturbance
  6. What causes lumpy jaw?
    infection of maxilla/mandible/face, usually with Actinomyces bovis- gram +, filamentous bacteria
  7. Describe the clinic presentation of lumpy jaw.
    hard, non-painful swelling of bone with a central lytic core and marked peripheral bone formation; teeth can get loose and deviate (trouble eating, salivation)
  8. Why doesn't lancing/draining work for lumpy jaw?
    because there are multiple cores because it keeps calcifying and trying to wall off
  9. Describe the treatment of lumpy jaw. (2)
    poor response- early surgical debridement is critical (when it's small); Penicillin, sodium iodide prolonged course
  10. What kind of inflammation is associated with lumpy jaw?
    granulomatous inflammation caused by Actinomyces bovis
  11. What causes wooden tongue?
    Actinobacillus ligneresii abscess in tongue
  12. What is the clinical presentation of wooden tongue? (4)
    thickened tongue, hard caseous thick-walled abscess, tongue protruding from mouth, fever
  13. How do you treat wooden tongue?
    Penicillin G or sodium iodide for 7-10 days, nutritional support
  14. Viral, physical, or chemical injury to the oral cavity.
    stomatitis
  15. What plants can cause stomatitis in cattle? (4)
    grasses w/ foxtails, bristle grass (Setaria glauca), cockleburr, cactus, etc.
  16. What are the characteristic lesions of bovine papular stomatitis?
    target lesions of the palate and nasal planum
  17. What causes bovine papular stomatitis?
    papular stomatitis virus
  18. Bovine nasal granulomas are caused by _____________, such as ___________.
    mycotic infections of the upper airway; Rhinosporidium spp.
  19. Describe the presentation of bovine nasal granulomas. (4)
    nasal passages obstructed, inspiratory dyspnea, stertor, masses
  20. What causes nasal granulomas?
    putting cows in the barn in the winter, barn not clean
  21. Atopic rhinitis is usually associated with...
    plant pollen or fungal spores (housed inside in winter), leading to a Type I hypersensitivity reaction
  22. How can you tell when atopic rhinitis has become chronic?
    cobblestone feel/appearance to nasal mucosa
  23. How do you treat atopic rhinitis? (2)
    steroids (but this decreases milk and terminates pregnancy....many opt not to treat), prevent exposure to irritating substances
  24. Sinusitis is most commonly associated with... (3)
    head trauma, dehorning, dental infections
  25. With sinusitis, it usually occurs within the __(2)__.
    frontal and maxillary sinuses
  26. What are clinical signs of sinusitis? (6)
    head pressing, facial deformation, depression, anorexia, +/- purulent d/c with strong odor, +/- CN deficits
  27. How do you treat sinusitis?
    drainage with lavage and antibiotics
  28. What is the most common pathogen associated with otitis media/interna in calves?
    Manheimmia acutely then Mycoplasma comes in opportunisitcally
  29. Mycoplasma causes... (3)
    pneumonia, polyarthritis, otitis media/intern
  30. Mycoplasma is inherently resistant to __(2)__ because...
    beta-lactams and cephalosporins; they lack a cell wall.
  31. What is the etiology of necrotic laryngitis?
    infection of laryngeal cartilage with a gram (-) anaerobe, usually Fusobacterium necrophorum
  32. How do calves get necrotic laryngitis? (3)
    IBR in herd, recently weaned (yelling for mom, causing lesions of larynx), trauma to URT
  33. What are signs of necrotic laryngitis? (7)
    stridors, dyspnea, open mouth breathing, fever (endotoxemia), anorexia, scleral injection, pain on palpation of upper airway
  34. What will you see on bloodwork of a calf with necrotic laryngitis? (2)
    early leukopenia/neutropenia/left shift, elevated fibrinogen
  35. How do you treat necrotic laryngitis? (3)
    NSAIDs or steroids, penicillin or oxytet (gram neg so must use beta-lactam), supportive (tracheostomy)
  36. What is the risk of pulling a calf by the rear limbs?
    can put a large amount of pressure on sternum and risk breaking ribs- fractured ribs compress trachea [gradual onset]

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Author:
Mawad
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314106
Filename:
CattleII1- Head/Oral Dz
Updated:
2016-01-19 12:29:30
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vetmed cattleII1
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vetmed cattleII1
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