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Statement of disclosure
Release of information
a document through which the ct gives the counselor permission to share confidential information with another agency or professional; should specify what information may be given to whom and when.
Title IX of the Ed. Amendment of '72
fed. law banning sexual discrimination in academic institutions from kindergarten to university.
gives all parents of students under 18 years of age and all students over 18 years of age attending post-secondary schools, the right to see, correct and control access to student records.
3rd party payment
payment of charges through an insurance company or through the employer if the counselor is employed by an agency or under the supervision of a psychologist.
Managed Health Care
a system that controls the delivery of health care to members of the system and the payment for that care.
Employee Assistance Programs (EPA)
company provided programs to assist employees either by an in-house counselor or referrals to outside agencies.
Ethical standards of Practice
- 1 co must adhere to a code of ethics
- 2 ethical practice is defined by the profession
- 3 informed consent must be obtained before tmnt
- 4 cts must be informed if it is necessary to break confidentiality.
- 5 parental consent must be obtained for minors
- 6 cts must be informed if a session is recorded, observed by a supervisor, or if the co is still in training
- 7 No sex with cts for at least 5 years after termination of services
- 8 co may inform ct's partner if the ct has AIDS
- 9 Co should not treat friends or family
- 10 continue education - including multiculturalism
- 11 danger to self or others = break confidentiality
- 12 primary responsibility is to the ct.
co's responsibility to provide to meet the standards of professional practice.
Successful malpractice suits require
- ct/co relationship
- co negligence
- substandard services
- physical or psychological harm resulting from a breach of duty
steps in establishing a counseling program
- 1 understand the context in which it will exist
- 2 assess need, develop mission statement
- 3 set goals, objectives, and measurements of success
- 4 set up feedback procedures
- 5 conduct pilot program
- 6 development plan including: facilities, funding, personnel, and other resources
- 7 implementation plan including: schedule for hiring, training, and start-up activities
- 8 start and fine-tune procedures
- 9 evaluate program
- 10 review and modify as needed
Purpose of Action-based communication
actions, such as walking or creating artwork, used along with words to help a ct be more comfortable and willing to share.
handling group communication
- co creates rules
- each member needs the chance to speak for themselves to the group and the co.
- each member needs the opportunity for feedback
Authentic relationship theory
- co must be consistent in the messages sent to the ct to earn the ct's trust.
- this allows the ct to work toward solving their own problems with less direction from the co.
Elements of group communication
- messages are sent continually
- some people aren't paying attention
- some people will respond out of turn
- larger groups produce more messages and lower clarity.
- diversity increases the chance of miscommunication
- the group needs to be aware of potential problems ahead of time
power relationship theory
- co is the expert in the relationship
- power comes from expertise, training, and education.
- cts give co power by following co's advice
- to appreciate what someone else is feeling even though what is causing these feelings is not happening to us at this moment.
- veiwing situations and people as they really are not as the counselor thinks they are.
- requires bkgd of ct: SES, culture, etc.
- psychodynamic family therapy
- basic family dynamic to which they will return even if dysfunctional
Strategic family counseling
- behavior change not insight
- practical approach based on: communication, interaction, and behavior patterns.
- creative interventions
- focus on immediate problems
- hierarchical family structure
Experiential family therapy
focuses on experience and emotion not insight or cognition
Virginia Satir's styles of communication
- 1 placater
- 2 blamer
- 3 super-reasonable
- 4 irrelevant
- 5 congruent communication
- accuracy with which results may be generalized to a larger population
- risked by: sample size
- Hawthorne effects
- Rosenthal Effects
- demand characteristics
changes produced due to a subject knowing they are being observed.
- Pygmalion effect
- researcher bias
- subjects change behavior based on attitudes, behaviors, or expectations of the researcher.
Changes in subject behaviors to meet implicit demands of the researcher caused by information received by the subjects including rumors
extent to which the results of an experiment can be attributed to the variable under study
Type I error
- Rejecting the null when it is true.
- False positive
- Finding something that isn't really there
Type II error
- False Negative
- Denying an effect when it does exist
being able to explain or justify treatment decisions and activities
use of intonation, pitch, tempo and gestures to convey meaning
concept that behavior, decisions, and actions must be understood in context
shared norms, values, art, beliefs, and institutions of a community
- a population that occupies a defined territory with shared institutions and interests.
- members of a society may have different cultures
when a ct "surrenders" to a co from a different culture or class, allowing them to be open.
- Fritz Holder
- Motivational theory
- people seek cognitive balance between likes and dislikes
increase in effect size over time
experiment demonstrating value of shared goals on conflict resolution
- founder of French sociology
- studied values and alienation
- opponent of behaviorism
- hormic theory - behavior as goal oriented and purposive
- co as authority
- provide advice
- appropriate for cultures that value authority figures
- Osgood and Tannenbaum
- similarity between ct and co improves ct acceptance of co insight
Structural Family therapy
- Salvador Minuchin
- boundaries - diffuse or permeable
- seeks to define clearer boundaries and better defined subsystems.
- encourages acting out dysfunctional interactions.
therapy in which the co works with two or more family members at a time
the study of information flow through feedback loops
Fixed role therapy
ct is given a script to read and is then told to act like the character in the script
- exposing cts to imaginary anxiety stimuli.
- overexposure can cause increased anxiety
- exposing a ct to the actual anxiety provoking stimuli.
- overexposure can increase anxiety
Transactional analysis techniques
- co acts as teacher
- uses contracts, interrogation, confrontation, and illustration
transactional analysis - set of behaviors that originate from a childhood script
TA - saving up of non-genuine enduring feelings and "trading" them for a script milestone such as drinking or an angry outburst.
doing to oneself what one would like to do to someone else