Integumentary System (Chapter 6)

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  1. integument
    the skin
  2. integumentary system
    the skin and its accessory organs
  3. dermatology
    the study of the integumentary system
  4. thick skin
    • covers palms and soles
    • epidermis is about 0.5mm thick
    • sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous glands
  5. thin skin
    • epidermis is 0.1mm thick
    • covers rest of the body
    • has hair follicles, sweat glands and sebaceous glands
  6. functions of the skin
    • resistant to trauma and infection
    • barrier functions
    • vitamin D production
    • thermoregulation
    • nonverbal communication
  7. epidermis
    • keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • above the dermis
  8. stem cells
    • undifferentiated cells that divide and give rise to the keratinocytes
    • only in the stratum basale
  9. keratinocytes
    • majority of cells in epidermis
    • synthesize keratin
  10. melanocytes
    • synthesize melanin
    • only found in the stratum basale
  11. tactile cells
    • touch receptors
    • few in number
    • found in stratum basale
    • associated with a dermal nerve fiber together making a tactile disc
  12. dendritic cells
    • immune cells that originate from bone marrow
    • found in the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum
  13. layers of epidermis (from basal surface to apex)
    • 1. stratum basale
    • 2. stratum spinosum
    • 3. stratum granulosum
    • 4. stratum lucidum
    • 5. stratum corneum
  14. stratum basale
    • first layer of epidermis
    • single layer of cuboidal to columnar cells and keratinocytes resting on the basement membrane
    • contain stem cells
  15. stratum spinosum
    • second layer of epidermis (superficial to the stratum basale)
    • several layers of keratinocytes
    • thickest layer of thin skin
    • deepest cells are capable of mitosis
  16. stratum granulosum
    • third layer of epidermis (superficial to the stratum spinosum)
    • three to five layers of flat keratinocytes
  17. stratum lucidum
    • fourth layer of skin (superficial to the stratum granulosum)
    • seen only in thick skin
    • keratinocytes are densely packed
    • pale, featureless with indistinct cell boundaries
  18. stratum corneum
    • the fifth and most superficial layer of the epidermis
    • up to 30 layers of dead, scaly, keratinized cells
    • abrasion resistant
    • water retention
  19. dermis
    connective tissue beneath the epidermis
  20. dermal papillae
    • in the dermis
    • upward waves
    • fingerlike extensions into the epidermis
    • tall papillae allow nerves close to skin surface
  21. dermal ridges
    • in the dermis
    • downward waves
    • extension of epidermis into the dermis
  22. papillary layer
    thin zone of areolar connective tissue in and near dermal papillae
  23. reticular layer
    • deep to the papillary layer
    • thick
    • collagen forms thicker bundles with less room for ground substance
  24. hypedermis
    • also┬ácalled subcutaneous layer
    • below dermis
    • boundary is indistinct
    • pads the body and binds the skin to underlying tissue
  25. subcutaneous fat
    • hypodermis composed of adipose tissue
    • energy reservoir, thermal insulation
    • absent in scalp
    • abundant in breasts, hips, ect
  26. eumelanin
    • type of melanin
    • brownish black pigment
  27. phenomelanin
    • type of melanin
    • reddish yellow pigment
    • contains sulfer
  28. hemoglobin
    • red pigment in blood
    • imparts red/pink color to the skin when blood vessels are close to surface
  29. carotene
    • yellow pigment
    • can become condensed in corneum layer and subcutaneous fat
  30. cyanosis
    turning blue
  31. pallor
    pale skin due to little blood flow through skin.
  32. erythema
    red or flushed look to the skin
  33. albinism
    lack of melanin
  34. jaundice
    yellowing of the skin and sclera from high levels of bilirubin
  35. hematoma
  36. friction ridges
    finger prints
  37. flexion lines
    lines formed where skin folds during flexion of joints
  38. freckles
    flat melanized patches that very with heredity and exposure to sun
  39. mole (nevus)
    elevated patch of melanized skin
  40. hemangioma
    patched of skin discolored by benign tumors of capilaries
  41. pilus
    • plural pili
    • hair
  42. hair follicle
    oblique tube in the skin where hair grows from
  43. lanugo
    fine, downy, unpigmented hair that appears on the fetus in the last three months of development
  44. vellus
    • fine, pale hair
    • two-thirds of hair on women
    • one-tenth of hair on men
    • all hair on children except eyelashes, eyebrows, and scalp hair
  45. terminal hair
    • long, coarse, more heavily pigmented hair than lanugo and vellus
    • eyebrows, scalp hair, eyelashes
    • after puberty pubic hair, axillary hair, facial hair, and some hair on trunk and limbs
  46. bulb
    a swelling at the base of that hair where it originated from the dermis
  47. root
    the hair within the follicle excluding the bulb
  48. shaft
    the portion of hair above the skin
  49. dermal papilla
    • bulb of vascular connective tissue
    • provide hair with nutrients
  50. hair matrix
    • mitotically active cells
    • center of hair growth
    • all cells above are dead
  51. medulla
    core of loosely arranged cells and air space found in a cross section of hair
  52. cortex
    • constitutes most of the bulk of hair
    • several layers of elongated keratinized cells that appear cuboidal to flattened
  53. cuticle
    composed of multiple layers of very thin, scaly cells overlapping each other like roof shigles
  54. epithelial root sheath
    • an extension of the epidermis
    • composed of stratified squamous epithelium
    • lied immediately adjacent to the hair root
  55. connective tissue root sheath
    derived from the dermis and is somewhat denser than adjacent dermal tissue
  56. bulge
    • where the follicle widens
    • source of stem cells and follicle growth
  57. hair receptor
    nerve fibers that entwine each follicle and respond to hair movement
  58. piloerector muscle
    • a bundle of smooth muscle cells extending from the dermal collagen fibers to the connective tissue root sheath of the follicle
    • raises hair and create "goose bumps"
  59. hair cycle
    • consisting of three developmental stages
    • anagen
    • catagen
    • telogen
  60. anagen
    • 90% of hair growth
    • stem cells from the bulge multiply and travel downward, pushing dermal papilla deeper into the skin, forming the dermal epithelial root sheath
  61. catagen
    • mitosis in the hair matrix ceases
    • sheath cells die
  62. club hair
    • hair with the base keratinized into a hard club
    • can easily fall out or be pulled out
  63. telogen
    resting period
  64. alopecia
    hair loss
  65. hirutism
    excessive or undesirable hair growth
  66. vibrissae
    • guard hairs
    • guard nostrils and inner ear canals
    • eyelashes
    • eyebrows
  67. nail plate
    hard part of the nail
  68. nail body
    visible attached part of the nail
  69. free edge
    unattached overhanding portion of the nail
  70. nail root
    extends proximally under the overlying skin
  71. nail fold
    surrounding skin raised above the nail
  72. nail groove
    the margin of the nail
  73. nail bed
    skin underlying the nail plate
  74. hyponychium (HIPE-o-NICK-ee-um)
    epidermis of the nail bed
  75. nail matrix
    growth zone of the nail
  76. lunule
    white half moon at the proximal and of the nail
  77. eponychium (EP-o-NICK-ee-um)
  78. sudoriferous glands
    swear glands
  79. apocrine sweat glands
    • occur in the groin, anal region, axilla, and areola
    • use exocytosis
    • respond to stress
  80. merocrine sweat glands
    • widely distributed over the body
    • abundant in palms, sloes, and forehead
  81. myoepithelial cells
    • found amid secretory cells at the deep end of merocrine and apocrine glands
    • have properties similar to smooth muscle
  82. invisible perspiration
    perspiration that evaporates as it is excreted
  83. diaphoresis
    • heavy sweating
    • can loose up to on liter of water an hour
  84. sebaceous glands
    secret sebum
  85. ceruminous glands
    secrete cerumen or ear wax
  86. mammary glands
    • milk producing glands
    • only active during pregnancy and lactation
  87. basal cell carcinoma
    • most common type of skin cancer
    • seldom metastasized
    • starts in the stratum basale and eventually invades the dermis
    • lesions appear as a small shiny bump
  88. squamous cell carcinoma
    • arises from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum
    • lesions usually appear on the scalp, a concaved ulcer with raised edges
  89. melanoma
    • arises from melanocytes
    • accounts for 5% of skin cancer
    • extremely aggressive and drug resistant
    • if metastasized is unresponsive to chemo
  90. eschar
    burned, dead tissue
  91. first degree burn
    • a burn only affecting the epidermis
    • also called partial thickness burn
    • edema and pain
    • seldom leave scars
  92. second degree burn
    • affects the epidermis and part of the dermis
    • also called partial thickness burns
    • forms blisters
  93. third degree burns
    • also full thickness burns
    • epidermis and all of the dermis is damaged
    • takes a long time to heal and often requires skin grafts
  94. debridement
    removing dead skin and debris from burns
  95. autograft
    skin graft from the patient
  96. isograft
    skin graft taken from the patients identical twin
  97. allograft (homograft)
    skin graft from another person
  98. xenograft (heterograft)
    skin graft from a pig or other animal
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Integumentary System (Chapter 6)
2016-01-20 02:21:51
anatomy physiology integument
Vocab from Anatomy & Physiology by Saladin The Integumentary System Chapter 6
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