Indiana University M300 Chapter 4

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  1. consumer behavior
    • The actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services.
    • Ex. Women hate the car buying experience
  2. purchase decision process
    • The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products or services to buy
    • These stages are:
    • 1. Problem Recognition 
    • 2. Information Search
    • 3. Alternative Evaluation
    • 4. Post Purchase Behavior
  3. internal search
    Part of the information search in the purchase decision process. This is when you think of what brands or products you have used before when a problem has arrised
  4. external sources
    When you look for information for a solution. This can be personal sources such as family, public sources such as reviews or government agencies or market dominated sources, such as advertising or sales person
  5. evaluative criteria
    What you are looking for in a product. These can be both objective(cost, display ratio) or subjective(Prestige)
  6. consideration set
    the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware
  7. cognitive dissonance.
    The feeling of postpurchase psychological tension or anxiety
  8. involvement
    The personal, social, and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer. High involvement purchases have  (1) is expensive, (2) can have serious personal consequences,or (3) could reflect on one’s social image
  9. situational influences
    have an impact on the purchase decision process: (1) the purchase task, (2) social surroundings, (3) physical surroundings, (4) temporal effects, and (5) antecedent states.14
  10. motivation
    The energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need.
  11. Pyshcological Needs
    Physiological needs are basic to survival and must be satisfied first. A Red Lobster advertisement featuring a seafood salad attempts to activate the need for food. ”
  12. Safety needs
    involve self-preservation as well as physical and financial well-being. Smoke detector and burglar alarm manufacturers focus on these needs, as do insurance companies and retirement plan advisors.
  13. Social needs
    are concerned with love and friendship. Dating services, such as Match.com and eHarmony, and fragrance companies try to arouse these needs.
  14. Personal needs
    include the need for achievement, status, prestige, and self-respect. The American Express Centurian Card and Brooks Brothers Clothiers appeal to these needs. Sometimes firms try to arouse multiple needs to stimulate problem recognition. Michelin has combined safety with parental love to promote tire replacement for automobiles.
  15. Self-actualization needs
    needs involve personal fulfillment. For example, a long-running U.S. Army recruiting program invited enlistees to “Be all you can be
  16. personality
    A person’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations.
  17. perception
    The process by which a person selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.
  18. key traits
    enduring characteristics within a person or in his or her relationships with others. Such traits include assertiveness, extroversion, compliance, dominance, and aggression, among others
  19. selective perception
    a filtering of exposure, comprehension, and retention
  20. Selective exposure
    occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent with them
  21. Selective comprehension
    involves interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs. A marketer’s failure to understand this can have disastrous results. (Think Snow Pup)
  22. Selective retention
    means that consumers do not remember all the information they see, read, or hear, even minutes after exposure to it. This affects the internal and external information search stage of the purchase decision process
  23. Subliminal perception
    means that you see or hear messages without being aware of them. The presence and effect of subliminal perception on behavior is a hotly debated issue, with more popular appeal than scientific support.
  24. perceived risk .
    The anxiety felt when a consumer cannot anticipate possible negative outcomes of a purchase
  25. learning
    Behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning
  26. Behavioral learning
    is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. Process involves drive,cue, response, and reinforcement.. A drive is a need that moves an individual to action. A cue is a stimulus or symbol perceived by consumers. A response is the action taken by a consumer to satisfy the drive.Reinforcement is the reward
  27. Stimulus generalization
    occurs when a response elicited by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name for different products is an application of this concept, such as Tylenol Cold & Flu and Tylenol P.M.
  28. Stimulus discriminationt
    refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences in stimuli. Consumers’ tendency to perceive all light beers as being alike led to Budweiser Light commercials that distinguished between many types of “light beers” and Bud Light
  29. cognitive learning,
    involves making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behaviors and adjusting your own accordingly
  30. brand loyalty
    A favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time.
  31. attitude
    A tendency to respond to something in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way
  32. beliefs.
    A consumer’s perception of how a product or brand performs
  33. Attitude Change
    • 1. Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. like adding more healthy things in food
    • 2.  Changing the perceived importance of attributes. Pepsi-Cola made freshness an important product attribute when it stamped freshness dates on its cans. 
    • 3. Adding new attributes to the product. Colgate-Palmolive included a new antibacterial ingredient, triclosan, in its Colgate Total toothpaste
  34. Lifestyle
    is a mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources, what they consider important in their environments, and what they think of themselves and the world around them
  35. psychographics
    The analysis of consumer lifestyles,
  36. Ideals-motivated groups
    Consumers motivated by ideals are guided by knowledge and principles. High-resource Thinkers are motivated by knowledge and value and are not brand loyal. Low resource Believers are more based on established codes and brands. They are brand loyal
  37. Acheivement motivated Groups
    Consumers motivated by achievement look for products and services that demonstrate success to their peers or to a group they aspire to. High-resource Achievers have busy, goal-directed lifestyles and a deep commitment to career and family. Image is important to them. They favor established, prestige products and services and are interested in timesaving devices to manage hectic schedules. Low- resource Strivers are trend followers. They seek fun to offset frequent, self-inflicted stress-producing situations. Many believe that life is unfair but they lack the education, skills, and tenacity to change their circumstances. Money defines success for them; however, they believe that success is the result of good luck, not hard work.
  38. High and low resource groups
    High resource groups have wealth and are successful take charge people. Image is important to them. Lives are characterized by richness and variety. Low resource people focus on basic needs such as food water clothing and shelter rather than fufilling desires
  39. opinion leaders
    Individuals who have social influence over others
  40. word of mouth
    The influencing of people during conversations. Word of mouth is the most powerful and authentic information source for consumers because it typically involves friends viewed as trustworthy
  41. reference groups
    People to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standard
  42. associative group
    a reference group  to which a person actually belongs, including fraternities and sororities and alumni associations
  43. brand community
    specialized group of consumers with a structured set of relationships involving a particular brand, fellow customers of that brand, and the product in use.
  44. aspiration group
    a reference group  that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with, such as a professional society or sports team
  45. dissociative group
    a reference group that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. Firms often avoid dissociative reference groups in their marketing
  46. consumer socialization
    The process by which people acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. Children learn brands from an early age
  47. family group
    A family’s progression from formation to retirement, each phase bringing with it distinct purchasing behaviors.
  48. traditional family
    married couple with children younger than 18 years—constitutes just 21 percent of all U.S. households. The remaining 78 percent of U.S. households include single parents; unmarried couples; divorced, never-married, or widowed individuals; and older married couples whose children no longer live at home
  49. subcultures
    Subgroups within the larger, or national, culture with unique values, ideas, and attitudes

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Author:
lightedcaboose
ID:
314227
Filename:
Indiana University M300 Chapter 4
Updated:
2016-01-17 22:27:20
Tags:
marketing core chapter four IU Indiana university M300 300 Introduction
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marketing
Description:
Flash Cards for M300 for Indiana university Kelly Business School
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