Micro - Test 4

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  1. Name the stages of disease
    • Incubation period
    • Prodromal period
    • Period of illness
    • Period of decline
    • Convalescence
  2. interval between initial infection and onset of symptoms (time depends on microorganism, virulence, number, host resistance)
    Incubation period
  3. follows incubation (when you first start feeling lousy)
    Prodromal period
  4. presence of severe symptoms
    Period of illness
  5. symptoms subside (secondary infection vulnerability)
    Period of decline
  6. Recovery period
    Convalescence
  7. Name the different types of symbiosis
    • Commensalism
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
  8. the relationship between normal microbiota and the host
    Symbiosis
  9. Symbiosis in which bacteria benefits and humans are unaffected (S. epidermidis on skin)
    Commensalism
  10. Symbiosis in which both organisms benefit (E. coli in gut making vitamins)
    Mutualism
  11. Symbiosis in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other (disease causing organisms, doesn’t kill the other one)
    Parasitism
  12. disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive (Shingles)
    Latent
  13. disease develops slowly and continues for a long period and may reoccur (Malaria)
    persistent
  14. the study of the cause and the diagnosis of disease or changes in a person, animal, or plant that are caused by disease
    Pathology
  15. the study of the cause of a disease
    Etiology
  16. the development of a disease
    Pathogenesis
  17. colonization of the body by pathogens
    Infection
  18. an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
    Disease
  19. the extent or degree of pathogenicity
    Virulence
  20. fraction of people GETTING the disease
    Incidence
  21. fraction of people that HAVE the disease
    Prevalence
  22. Functions of normal microbiota
    • Protect host by:
    • Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
    • Producing acids
    • Producing bacteriocins
    • Using nutrients and oxygen
  23. How a fever comes about
    • The Pyrogenic response
    • Caused by cytokines, NOT the endotoxin
    • -->cytokines travel to the hypothalamus
    • -->hypothalamus produces prostaglandins
    • -->prostaglandins reset the body’s thermostat higher
  24. disease constantly present in a population
    Endemic
  25. disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
    Epidemic
  26. worldwide epidemic
    Pandemic
  27. disease that occurs occasionally in a population (Typhoid)
    Sporadic
  28. symptoms develop rapidly and end shortly after (Flu)
    Acute
  29. disease develops slowly, continues for a long period and may reoccur (Malaria)
    Chronic
  30. between acute and chronic; Rather recent onset or somewhat rapid change; usually caused by alpha-hemolytic strep from mouth
    sub-acute
  31. spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins in the blood, lungs or other tissues
    Sepsis
  32. bacteria in the blood
    Bacteremia
  33. toxins in the blood
    Toxemia
  34. ability to produce a toxin
    Toxigenicity
  35. viruses in the blood
    Viremia
  36. acute infection that causes the initial illness (cold)
    Primary Infection
  37. opportunistic infection after a primary infection (pneumonia)
    Secondary Infection
  38. habitat in which the agent normally lives, grows, and multiplies, and from which they can be transmitted
    Reservoirs
  39. animal diseases that may be transmitted to humans
    Zoonoses
  40. arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes
    Vectors
  41. hospital acquired infections
    Nosocomial
  42. the incidence of disease
    Morbidity
  43. the proportion of deaths to population
    Mortality
  44. How bacterial pathogens penetrated host defenses
    • Cell walls (M protein binds to cell wall and prevents phagocytosis)
    • Enzymes
    • Antigenic variations (ability of bacterial cell to alter their surface antigens)
  45. Variety of different ways to destroy cell
    • Can grow inside the host cells to avoid host defenses like the immune system
    • To invade the cell, viruses have attachment sites for receptors on their target cells
  46. Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    • Portals of entry
    • -->number of invading microbes and adherence
    • penetration or evasion of host defenses
    • -->damage to host cells
    • portals of exit
  47. Characteristics of Exotoxin
    • produced within cell
    • bacteria must be functional
    • secreted
    • protein
    • typically Gram+
  48. Characteristics of Endotoxin
    • Lipid
    • Gram-
    • Not secreted
    • Part of the membrane of the cell
    • Causes problem once then cell dies and lyses
  49. Why super antigens are so dangerous
    Causes intense immune response due to massive release of cytokines from host cells
  50. killing harmful microbes without damaging the host
    Selective toxicity
  51. the ratio of the toxic dose to the therapeutic dose (the larder the index, the safer the drug – to humans)
    Therapeutic Index
  52. What natural penicillin does to the cell?
    Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the cross linking of peptides
  53. What is its target?
    Inhibiting transpeptidase
  54. Five action modes of antimicrobial drugs
    • Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • Inhibition of protein synthesis
    • Injury to plasma membrane (lipopeptides)
    • Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
    • Inhibition of metabolite synthesis (sulfonamides)
  55. Four major mechanisms of drug resistance and how they work
    • Drug inactivation or destruction: hydrolyze lactam
    • Prevention of penetration: restricts the uptake of molecules to the porins
    • Alteration of the drug’s target site: the modified PBP is not inhibited by PCN and cell wall synthesis continues
    • Rapid efflux of antibiotics: efflux pumps on the membrane of gram- bacteria eliminate toxic wastes
  56. the effect of two drugs together is greater than the effect of either alone
    Synergism
  57. the effect of two drugs together is less than effect of either alone
    Antagonism
  58. The three results of antibody-antigen binding
    • Block infections and eliminate extracellular microbes
    • Activate macrophages to kill phagocytosed microbes
    • Kill infected cells and eliminate reservoirs of infection
  59. The mechanisms by which Tamiflu works
    Blocks the neuraminidase enzyme
  60. The mechanisms by which Acyclovir works
    inhibitor of herpes virus DNA polymerase
  61. What is targeted in treatment of retroviruses?
    Reverse Transcriptase
  62. The mechanism of action of successful Mycobacteria treatment
    • Mycobacteria incorporate mycolic acids in the cell wall
    • Drugs target the synthesis or incorporation of mycolic acid
Author:
cbennett
ID:
314229
Card Set:
Micro - Test 4
Updated:
2016-01-18 00:33:09
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Micro Test
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Micro - Test 4
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