Micro - Test 4

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  1. Name the stages of disease
    • Incubation period
    • Prodromal period
    • Period of illness
    • Period of decline
    • Convalescence
  2. interval between initial infection and onset of symptoms (time depends on microorganism, virulence, number, host resistance)
    Incubation period
  3. follows incubation (when you first start feeling lousy)
    Prodromal period
  4. presence of severe symptoms
    Period of illness
  5. symptoms subside (secondary infection vulnerability)
    Period of decline
  6. Recovery period
  7. Name the different types of symbiosis
    • Commensalism
    • Mutualism
    • Parasitism
  8. the relationship between normal microbiota and the host
  9. Symbiosis in which bacteria benefits and humans are unaffected (S. epidermidis on skin)
  10. Symbiosis in which both organisms benefit (E. coli in gut making vitamins)
  11. Symbiosis in which one organism benefits at the expense of the other (disease causing organisms, doesn’t kill the other one)
  12. disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive (Shingles)
  13. disease develops slowly and continues for a long period and may reoccur (Malaria)
  14. the study of the cause and the diagnosis of disease or changes in a person, animal, or plant that are caused by disease
  15. the study of the cause of a disease
  16. the development of a disease
  17. colonization of the body by pathogens
  18. an abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  19. the extent or degree of pathogenicity
  20. fraction of people GETTING the disease
  21. fraction of people that HAVE the disease
  22. Functions of normal microbiota
    • Protect host by:
    • Occupying niches that pathogens might occupy
    • Producing acids
    • Producing bacteriocins
    • Using nutrients and oxygen
  23. How a fever comes about
    • The Pyrogenic response
    • Caused by cytokines, NOT the endotoxin
    • -->cytokines travel to the hypothalamus
    • -->hypothalamus produces prostaglandins
    • -->prostaglandins reset the body’s thermostat higher
  24. disease constantly present in a population
  25. disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  26. worldwide epidemic
  27. disease that occurs occasionally in a population (Typhoid)
  28. symptoms develop rapidly and end shortly after (Flu)
  29. disease develops slowly, continues for a long period and may reoccur (Malaria)
  30. between acute and chronic; Rather recent onset or somewhat rapid change; usually caused by alpha-hemolytic strep from mouth
  31. spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins in the blood, lungs or other tissues
  32. bacteria in the blood
  33. toxins in the blood
  34. ability to produce a toxin
  35. viruses in the blood
  36. acute infection that causes the initial illness (cold)
    Primary Infection
  37. opportunistic infection after a primary infection (pneumonia)
    Secondary Infection
  38. habitat in which the agent normally lives, grows, and multiplies, and from which they can be transmitted
  39. animal diseases that may be transmitted to humans
  40. arthropods, especially fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes
  41. hospital acquired infections
  42. the incidence of disease
  43. the proportion of deaths to population
  44. How bacterial pathogens penetrated host defenses
    • Cell walls (M protein binds to cell wall and prevents phagocytosis)
    • Enzymes
    • Antigenic variations (ability of bacterial cell to alter their surface antigens)
  45. Variety of different ways to destroy cell
    • Can grow inside the host cells to avoid host defenses like the immune system
    • To invade the cell, viruses have attachment sites for receptors on their target cells
  46. Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
    • Portals of entry
    • -->number of invading microbes and adherence
    • penetration or evasion of host defenses
    • -->damage to host cells
    • portals of exit
  47. Characteristics of Exotoxin
    • produced within cell
    • bacteria must be functional
    • secreted
    • protein
    • typically Gram+
  48. Characteristics of Endotoxin
    • Lipid
    • Gram-
    • Not secreted
    • Part of the membrane of the cell
    • Causes problem once then cell dies and lyses
  49. Why super antigens are so dangerous
    Causes intense immune response due to massive release of cytokines from host cells
  50. killing harmful microbes without damaging the host
    Selective toxicity
  51. the ratio of the toxic dose to the therapeutic dose (the larder the index, the safer the drug – to humans)
    Therapeutic Index
  52. What natural penicillin does to the cell?
    Inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by inhibiting the cross linking of peptides
  53. What is its target?
    Inhibiting transpeptidase
  54. Five action modes of antimicrobial drugs
    • Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • Inhibition of protein synthesis
    • Injury to plasma membrane (lipopeptides)
    • Inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
    • Inhibition of metabolite synthesis (sulfonamides)
  55. Four major mechanisms of drug resistance and how they work
    • Drug inactivation or destruction: hydrolyze lactam
    • Prevention of penetration: restricts the uptake of molecules to the porins
    • Alteration of the drug’s target site: the modified PBP is not inhibited by PCN and cell wall synthesis continues
    • Rapid efflux of antibiotics: efflux pumps on the membrane of gram- bacteria eliminate toxic wastes
  56. the effect of two drugs together is greater than the effect of either alone
  57. the effect of two drugs together is less than effect of either alone
  58. The three results of antibody-antigen binding
    • Block infections and eliminate extracellular microbes
    • Activate macrophages to kill phagocytosed microbes
    • Kill infected cells and eliminate reservoirs of infection
  59. The mechanisms by which Tamiflu works
    Blocks the neuraminidase enzyme
  60. The mechanisms by which Acyclovir works
    inhibitor of herpes virus DNA polymerase
  61. What is targeted in treatment of retroviruses?
    Reverse Transcriptase
  62. The mechanism of action of successful Mycobacteria treatment
    • Mycobacteria incorporate mycolic acids in the cell wall
    • Drugs target the synthesis or incorporation of mycolic acid
Card Set:
Micro - Test 4
2016-01-18 00:33:09
Micro Test

Micro - Test 4
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