Psych 282

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  1. Overt Behaviour
    Behaviors that can be objectively measured
  2. Covert Behaviour
    Behaviors that aren't directly observable but are inferred through other overt behaviors
  3. Target Behavior
    The behavior you are trying to modify
  4. Response
    One occurrence of behaviour
  5. Response Class
    Group of responses with similar outcomes
  6. Repetoire
    Collection of all behaviors a person can perform, or potentially perform
  7. Theoretical Psychology
    Conceptual side, done at an office/desk
  8. Experimental Psychology
    Basic research done with animals in a lab
  9. Applied Psychology
    Practical research to solve problems/give treatment to people in the real world
  10. Behaviorism
    Philosophy of the science of behavior
  11. Experimental analysis of behavior (EAB)
    Basic research on relationship of environmental events and resulting behavior
  12. Behavior Modification
    Application of experimentally derived laws of learning to human behavior
  13. Applied Behavior Analysis
    Use knowledge about human behavior to reduce socially undesirable behaviors/increase acceptable ones (Exact same as behavior modification)
  14. Ian Pavlov (1927)
    Stimuli-response psychology, classical conditioning
  15. E.L. Thorndyke (1911)
    Law of Effect, cat puzzle box
  16. Law of Effect
    A favorable behavior in a certain situation is more likely to occur in the same situation in the future
  17. J.B. Watson (1913)
    Founded Behaviorism, human activities are learned habits, developed methodological behaviorism
  18. Methodological Behaviorism
    The study of behavior and stimuli alone, no analysis of internal mental states or events
  19. B.F. Skinner (1938; 1953)
    Radical Behaviorism, S-R-S model
  20. Radical Behaviorism
    Behaviors to reveal thoughts and feelings, considered private events within the self. Attempts to explain all behaviors.
  21. S-R-S Model / ABC Model
    • 1. Antecedent Stimulus resulting in
    • 2. Behavior resulting in
    • 3. Consequence
  22. Behavior Research and Therapy Journal publication
  23. Case Studies in Behavior Modification
    1965, first book with "Behavior Modification"
  24. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
    1968, first scientific journal for ABA
  25. Association for Behavior Analysis foundation
  26. Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)
    Look at a dependent variable over repeated measurements, can be within-subject or between-subjects. Examine functional relations instead of hypothetical constructs. Show with visual representation of results.
  27. Screening Phase
    General client demographic information, look for eligibility for behavior modification treatment
  28. Behavioral Assessment Phase
    Define and measure baseline behavior
  29. Treatment Phase
    Actively apply training, or treatment program
  30. Follow-up Phase
    Determine effects on behavior after treatment is over
  31. Behavioral Assessment
    Measure the target behavior of an individual
  32. Behavior Goal
    Level of the target behavior the program is designed to achieve, must be defined and quantified
  33. Operational Definition
    A precise, objective definition of a term by specifying how the observer measured it
  34. Frequency of behavior
    Number of responses in a given time frame
  35. Duration of behavior
    Length of time of a behavior
  36. Latency of a behavior
    Time between antecedent stimuli and onset of behavior
  37. Intensity of behavior
    Assessment of strength of behavior with a scale
  38. Product recording of behavior
    Measure tangible output of behavior
  39. Quality of behavior
    Arbitrary judgement of social value
  40. Direct Assessment
    Observe + record antecedents, target behaviors, and consequences as they occur
  41. Indirect Assessment
    Second-hand or remembered information
  42. Naturalistic Setting
    Behavior observed in natural settings
  43. Analogue Setting
    Behavior observed in a simulated location
  44. Structured Situation
    Observations made when specific events were planned to occur to elicit a response
  45. Unstructured Setting
    Observations made without altering events, client preforms daily life activities
  46. Continuous Recording
    Record every instance of client's behavior during the entire observation period
  47. Interval Recording
    Record target behavior within successive time intervals
  48. Partial Interval Recording
    Record target behavior only once per interval even if occurred multiple times
  49. Whole Interval Recording
    Record behavior only if it persists during the entire interval
  50. Time Sample Recording
    Record behavior during brief intervals separated from each other by time
  51. Client Rights
    • 1. Therapeutic environment
    • 2. Overriding goal of personal welfare¬†
    • 3. Treatment by competent behavior analyst
    • 4. Programs teach functional skills
    • 5. Behavioral assessment + ongoing evaluation
    • 6. Most effective treatments
  52. A-B Design
    One baseline phase and one treatment phase
  53. A-B-A-B Design
    Two baseline and two treatment phases. Same behavior, same client, same setting.
  54. Multiple Baseline Design
    • More than one treatment design can be carried out simultaneously. Multiple baseline across
    • 1: Subjects
    • 2: Behaviors
    • 3: Settings
  55. Alternating Treatment Design
    2+ treatments are applied in the treatment phase but not simultaneously.
  56. Changing Criterion Design
    Criterion for successful treatment progressively changes
  57. Operant
    Functioning or tending to produce effects
  58. Operant Conditioning
    Manipulate consequences of behavior which can lead to another behavior
  59. Reinforcement
    Process where consequence of a behavior strengthens the behavior
  60. Reinforcer
    Appealing stimuli which is the consequence of a behavior
  61. Positive Reinforcement
    Behavior is followed by a pleasant stimuli to reinforce behavior
  62. Negative Reinforcement
    Behavior is followed by a removal of an unpleasant stimuli to reinforce behavior
  63. Escape Behavior
    Behavior results in the removal of existing negative stimuli
  64. Avoidance Behavior
    Behavior prevents the presentation of a negative stimuli
  65. Social Reinforcement
    Relies on another person to deliver the reinforcing consequences
  66. Automatic Reinforcement
    Reinforcement consequences come directly from the environment
  67. Natural Reinforcement
    Reinforcement occurs spontaneously as part of everyday life
  68. Programmed Reinforcement
    Reinforcement that is planned and systematic
  69. Tangible Reinforcement
    Reinforcement involving access to a preferred object
  70. Activity Reinforcement
    Reinforcement involving in engaging in preferred behavior
  71. Premack Principle
    Preferred behavior serving as positive reinforcement to do a less-preferred behavior
  72. Temptation Bundling
    Make a more desirable behavior dependent on preforming a less desirable behavior
  73. Unconditioned Reinforcer
    Stimuli or even that has natural reinforcing effects like food or water
  74. Conditioned Reinforcer
    Previously neutral stimuli that became associated with an unconditioned reinforcer
  75. Motivating Operations/Setting Events
    Events that temporarily alter effectiveness of reinforcement/behavior
  76. Establishing Operation
    Establishes or increases the effectiveness of reinforcement
  77. Abolishing Operation
    Decreases the effectiveness of reinforcement
  78. Contigency
    Consequences that should consistently follow a behavior
  79. Continuous Reinforcement
    Reinforcement given for each response
  80. Intermittent Reinforcement
    Reinforcement delivered for only some responses
  81. Fixed Ratio Reinforcment
    Reinforcer given after set number of responses
  82. Variable Ratio Reinforcement
    Reinforcer given after a random number of responses
  83. Fixed Interval Reinforcement
    Reinforcer given when response occurs after a certain amount of time
  84. Variable Interval Reinforcement
    Reinforcer given when response occurs after a variable amount of time
  85. Fixed Duration
    Reinforcer given when response occurs continuously during a certain time period
  86. Variable Duration
    Reinforcer given when response occurs continuously during a variable period of time
  87. Pain Behaviors
    Things you do/don't do while in pain
  88. Extinction
    If a previously reinforced behavior stops being reinforced, the behavior will weaken.
  89. Extinction Burst
    Brief increase in behavior (frequency,duration/intensity/etc) after reinforcement is eliminated
  90. Extinction-induced Aggression
    Emotional/Aggressive behaviors can be exhibited after extinction
  91. Spontaneous Recovery
    After a period of extinction, the behavior may reappear despite no reinforcement.
  92. Punishment
    Consequence of a behavior weakening the behavior.
  93. Punisher
    Object/event that weakens the behavior
  94. Positive Punishment
    Presence of an aversive stimulus decreases behavior (can be aversive activity or stimulation)
  95. Negative Punishment
    Removal of an appetitive stimulus decreases behavior (Time out = removal from reinforcing environment, response cost = taking away privileged item)
  96. Unconditioned Punisher
    Stimulus/event that is naturally aversive
  97. Conditioned Punisher
    Previously neutral stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned punisher
  98. Generalized Conditioned Punisher
    Conditioned punisher that is associated with a number of other punishers (NO!)
  99. Immediacy of Punishment
    Punishment is most effective when it follows directly after the behavior
  100. Contingency of Punishment
    Punishment is most effective when it follows the behavior every time
  101. Motivating Operations
    Events that can alter the effectiveness of the punishment and affect behavior therefore
  102. Establishing Operation
    A motivating operation which increases effectiveness of punishment
  103. Abolishing Operation
    A motivating operation which decreases the effectiveness of punishment
  104. Antecedents
    Stimuli/events/situation that precedes a behavioral response, provides context for response.
  105. Overt Antecedent
    Directly observable with senses
  106. Covert Antecedents
    Internal events
  107. Immediate Antecedents
    Occur right before/overlap with behavior
  108. Distant Antecedents
    Stimuli that precede a behavior by a long time
  109. Stimulus Control
    The extent to which an antecedent stimulus can effect a specific behavior
  110. Stimulus Discrimination Training
    Administer a certain consequence for a specific behavior when a specific stimulus is present, but not for other stimuli
  111. Discriminative Stimulus
    Stimulus in which the behavior is reinforced
  112. Stimulus Generalization
    A stimulus similar to the discriminating stimulus produces the behavior
  113. Generalization Gradient
    Stimuli most similar to the discriminative stimuli produce the stronger responses
  114. Stimulus Class
    Group of stimuli that share features and all evoke the same response
  115. Stimulus Overgeneralization
    Responding to stimuli from different categories the same way
Card Set:
Psych 282
2016-01-31 21:21:04

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