nutrition part 1

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rreavis
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31428
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nutrition part 1
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2010-08-29 19:59:06
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sgu nutrition
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intro, vitamins, protein, lipids, minerals, energy, carbohydrates,
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  1. food inputs
    energy, protein, vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids
  2. food losses
    • digestive- fecal
    • metabolic- urine, methane, heat
  3. food outputs
    meat, milk, eggs, companion animals
  4. which age group has the greatest loss of food resources
    adult
  5. basic principles of nutrition
    • stage of development
    • digestive physiology
    • dentition
    • feeding behavior
  6. nutritional relevance
    ruminant- rumen, reticulum, omasum,
    • large fermentation vessel
    • microflora
    • degrade plant fiber
    • products absorbed
  7. nutritional relevance
    ruminant - stomach, abomasum, duodenum, ileum
    • small intestine
    • endogenous enzymes
    • nutrient abosorption
  8. nutritional relevance
    ruminant - caecum, colon, rectum
    • large intestine
    • further microbial activity
    • products absorbed
    • resorption water, minerals
  9. salivary gland enzyme
    salivary amylase -startch
  10. gastric mucosa enzyme (stomach)
    pepsin - protein
  11. pancreas enzymes (small intestine)
    • trypsin - protein
    • chymotrypsin - protein
    • pancreatic lipase - triglyceride
    • pancreatic alpha-amylase - starch
    • ribonuclease - RNA
    • Deoxyribonuclease - DNA
  12. intestinsal mucosa enzymes
    • aminopeptidase - peptides
    • dipeptidase - dipeptides
    • maltase - maltose
    • lactase - lactose
  13. ruminant digestive physiology
    • utilise plant fiber
    • essentially grazers
    • herbivores
  14. non-ruminant digestive physiology
    • cannot use plant fiber to a great extent
    • prefer less complex materials (lower fiber)
  15. non-ruminants which eat plants digestive physiology
    • hind gut fermenters
    • horse, rabbit
  16. relative size of GIT region
    ruminant
    mainly to the front, rumen occupies considerable space 70-19-11
  17. relative size of GIT
    non-ruminants -
    • fairly evenly distributed, both endogenous digestion and some hind-gut fermentation
    • (cat )-very limited hind-gut fermentation
  18. relative size of GIT
    Hind-gut fermenters-
    extensive caecal fermentation
  19. Rumen microflora
    • bacteria 10^9ml content (>60 species);
    • protozoa (10^6 ml content);
    • fungi
    • influenced by diet
  20. rumen products
    • VFA's (4 kg per day) -main acetate
    • microbial protein
    • gasses - (burp) 30 l/hr; 40% co2 30-40% CH4
  21. rumen homeostasis
    • pH 5.5-6.5
    • VFA's rapidly absorbed,
    • salivary buffers (phosphate, bicarbonate) w/o usual anitibotic
  22. good grass quality
    • vegetative -leaf and stem - tillers hard autumn grazing
    • clover-high nitrogen
    • ensiled whole crop cereals
    • alfalfa
  23. poor grass quality
    • flowers (inflorescence) reduced nutritonal value/ high fiber
    • reduced mineral intake - Ca - milk fever
    • poor growth
    • build-up of pasture worms (zero grazing better)
  24. good quality silage
    • no air (anaerobic) pack down
    • rapid fermentation
    • reduce moisture
    • pH 4 (low pH = pathogens)
  25. silage hazards
    • uncontrolled fermentation
    • variable conditions
    • pathogenic micro-organisms
    • toxic chemicals w/ bacterial toxins
    • excess acidity
  26. silage pathogens
    • e. coli -diarrhea, mastitis
    • listeria monocytogenes-listeriosis, silage eye
    • fungal spores - respiratory distress
    • botulism
    • cryptosporidium parvum
    • actinomycetes
    • penicillim roqueforti
  27. enterobacteria risk factors
    • animal manure spread on grass crop
    • slow acidification -<sugar, >water
    • low concentration of undissociated lactic acid in silage
    • low acid, high NH3, high mineral concentration
  28. L. monocytogens risk factors
    • contaminated soil
    • >4.5 pH
    • oxygen infiltration
    • mold
    • mostly on outer layer of bale
  29. botulism risk factors
    • silage contaminated w/ carcasses
    • wet silage >4.5 pH
  30. acidosis & symptoms
    acute - over eating on rapidly fermented starch +suga
    rchronic- too much concentrate, little physical activity
    • high WSC in crop
    • low DM at harvest
    • low buffering capacity
    • innoculant additive
    • short cut
    • low pH < 4.0
    • rapidly digested carbs in supplement feed
  31. clinical signs of Acidosis
    treat- NaHCo3, walk, long fiber
    • >intake of minerals
    • low milk fat
    • drinking urin
    • straw
    • change in silage intake
    • regurgitation
    • diarrhea, hyperventilation, lethargy, bloat
  32. Birds
    • particulate feeders,
    • crop = storage > esophagus capacity, mucus
    • proventriculus-mucus, HCL, pepsinogen
    • gizzard-grit, grinds
  33. dentition - herbivores
    • large molars and premolars
    • grind food into smaller pieces
  34. dentition - omnivores
    combinations - proportions depend on main components of diet
  35. dentition - carnivores
    large incisors and canines
  36. feeding behavior
    trickle feeders -
    • horse and rabbit
    • large number of small meals
  37. feeding behavior
    grazing herbivores -
    • several hours at pasture
    • rumination
  38. feeding behavior
    carnivores -
    • variation
    • large - large meal every couple of days
    • small - a little bit now and again
    • prefer warmer food
  39. feeding behaviour
    Omnivores -
    • variation
    • canines - large meals occasionally and regular daily meals
  40. objectives in nutrition
    • relate input to output- performance health
    • quality optimum input, biological response, economics
  41. Ideal feed evaluation system
    • 1. based upon sound scientific concepts
    • 2. allow prediction of responses to a given intake
    • 3. easy to use
    • 4. sufficiently accurate to allow substitution of one feedstuff for another
  42. feed evaluation - principles
    1. chemical/p[hysical nature of diet
    2. productive response
    • moving from 1->2 losses in digestion, absorption, assimilation of dietary energy and nutrients
    • - increasingly more a function of the animal and less a charateristic of the diet

    (need a diet that does both)
  43. Total digestible nutrients (TND) feed evaluation system
    • widely used, not effective, based on chemical constituents (proximate analysis)
    • organic matter(CP, CF, NFE, EE), inorganic matter(ash)
    • sum of total constituents
    • total * digestibility(%)=content of digestible component
  44. TND Criticism
    • 1. assumes- total nitrogen, all N is protein
    • 2. variables in method of chemical determination (solvent, time of reflux)
    • 3. CP- complex carbs are dissolved, suppose to represent non-digestible component (does have a low amount)
    • 4. digestible component? determens difference =errors
    • NOT scientific - does not predict response
  45. recent developments in feed evaluation
    • what animal actually requires
    • energy (not a nutrient) yielding potential
    • protein
    • minerals
    • vitamins
    • essential fatty acids
  46. mineral interactions
    Ca:P
  47. mineral:vit interaction
    selenium:vit E
  48. vit: essesntial fatty acid interaction
    vit E : linoleic acid
  49. energy : protein
    response to dietary protein influenced by presence of energe
  50. Water- chemial analysis
    • overlooked, simplest
    • cheap
    • moisture content = deterioration
    • fermentation, mold, mycotoxicoses, mycotoxins
  51. Fiber - chemical analyses
    • NDF- insoluble in neutral detergent
    • lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose "plant cell wall"

    • ADF -insolube in acid detergent
    • lignin, cellulose

    NDF-ADF=hemicelluloses "active plant fiber"
  52. gross energy
    • glucose- 15.6
    • lipid- 39.4
    • protein- 20.1
    • energy potential depends on degree the components are digested
  53. sources of energy
    • protein
    • lipid- plant oils, animal fats
    • carbs(starch, sugars, fiber)- cereal greains, molasses, forages
  54. gross energy GE
    energy released when a dietary raw material or complete feed is completely combusted in an atmosphere of oxygen
  55. digestible energy DE
    • energy available following digestion
    • DE=GE-fecal energy
  56. metabolism energy ME
    • energy retained
    • ME=GE-(fecal=urinary+methane)
  57. net energy NE
    • energy available for maintenance and production
    • NE=GE-(fecal+urinary+methane+heat increment)
  58. partitioning of dietary energy
    • Feces - ruminants most loss
    • heat incriment- non ruminants most loss
    • urine methane- lots in fowl
    • swine & fowl- highest production
    • - ruminants do utilize low quality materials that the others can't use
  59. best estimate of dietary energy
    Net energy- difficult to measure, depends on multiple variables
  60. small intestine digestion
    glucose
  61. large intestine fermentation
    • volatile fatty acids
    • utilize glucose>VFA
    • NE from DE small>large
  62. ME - metabolic energy
    • need fecal and urinary output(~3%)
    • hard to separte metabolic and digestice losses
    • ME = poultry
    • AME= apparent ME- needs endogenous losses (cells, bact, enzymes)
    • MEn = corrected to zero nitrogen retention
    • high losses of methane in ruminants = ME
  63. DE Digestible energy
    • counts variable losses of ingested dietary energy, not urine
    • inaccurate w/ different conditions
    • DE = Pigs
  64. GE gross energy
    • easy,
    • does not count any losses during digestion and metabolism
    • alone - poor for formulation of diet
  65. high concentrate diets cause
    high amounts of lactobacilli = acidosis
  66. Rumen-Simple carbs
    starch, fructans =fermented to VFA's
  67. Rumen Energy- complex carbs (Non starch polysaccaride)
    • fermented to VFA = very complex, inert
    • NSP: by pass, coated so pass through rumen
    • cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, pentosans
  68. Rumen Energy- fats/oils
    (in free state, reduce rumen activity feed as bypass)
    Unsaturated- depress DMI, impair fiber digestion, toxic to bacteia, eats less, impair rumen fermetation

    Saturated <6% - doesn't affect DMI, rumen inert, Stearic acid (digestible) decrease fat accumulation in liver, improves repro perfomance
  69. Pyruvic Acid -> volatile fatty acid
    • Acetate( highest)(VFA)
    • Butrate (VFA)
    • lactate -> concentrate -> propionate(VFA)
    • succinate -> forage -> proprionate(VFA)
  70. Net energy for ruminants
    • NE= ME*k(efficiency - maintenance)
    • k = maintenance - .72
    • lactation - .62
    • growth - .62
  71. Neutal detergen fiber (NDF)
    • increases acetate: good for milk quality, precursor for milf fat
    • in: long grass, silage, rolled cereals, dried grass, concentrates
  72. animal trials to determine energy value
    measure digestibility/ metabloism/ nutrient balance allowing precise data on value to be dtermined
  73. animal trials - compund diet
    comparatively easy to determine the measurements
  74. animal trials - raw materials
    • can't be evaluated independently
    • rate of inclusion to a basal diet- be where compund diets are at
  75. animal balance studies
    lengthy, expensive, may compromise animal welfare
  76. predict DE from chemical content
    • -non ruminants can't digest fiber (negative correlation between DE and "fiber)
    • -Crude Fiber does not fraction out fiber that has nutritional relvance BUT still good results
    • -emperical nature of predictions
  77. Problems with Fiber - NSP (non-startch polysaccharide)
    • -a chemical and will have different effects depending on the origin
    • - har d to derive chemical measurements w/ biological relevance
    • -measuring chemical and biological variation has to be done in separate samples within the same species
    • -adults digest fiber better (need to evaluate different ages also)
  78. prediction of DE/ME from chemical content
    • -use several chemical variables
    • -usually confined to compund diets
    • - increase in % in chemical components
  79. NIRS - near infra-red spectroscopy
    • -chemical bonds (C, O, H, N) absorb different wave lengths
    • -scan feed sample allows rapid estimate of composition which can then predict ME
  80. DOMD - digestible organic matter in the dry matter
    • rumen fluid used to digest forage sample
    • ME = .16 DOMD%
  81. carb - monosaccharides
    • (CH2O)x
    • glucose - hexose
  82. carb - disaccharides
    • 2 carb monomers, dipeptides
    • sucrose = glucose + fructose
    • Lactose = glucose + galactose
    • Maltose = glucaose + glucose
  83. carb - polysaccarides: digestible
    Starch - polymer of glucose, alpha bonds (1-4), stored in plants, amylase breaks down (1-4)

    amylopectin - polymer of glucose(1-4 & 1-6) less common
  84. polysaccharides: non-digestible, fermentable
    • Cellulose: polymer of glucose, beta (1-6), most common, plant structure, little fermentation
    • Hemicelluloses: some hind gut fermentation, polymers of hexoses and pentoses
    • Pectins: not digested, polymers of galacturonic acid
    • oligosaccharides: glucose, fructose & galactose, bonds can't be broken by enzymes
  85. Lignin
    Named as a polysaccharide: nondigestible, fermentable, but NOT a carb but phenolic based compound
  86. Phytic acid - carbohydrate-based molecule
    • how plant stores P
    • binds minerals
    • needs phytase to break off minerals when plants need, can be added to diets
    • P not readily available for animal - excrete in feces which leads to polution
  87. Cell wall complexity
    • pentosans, hexosans, mixed, cellulose
    • -when bond together make it harder for fermentation
  88. structure of nonstarch carbs
    • Pentoses: Xylose, Arabinose
    • Hexose: glucose, galactose, mannose
    • -most common, less complex the more soluble
  89. water insoluble Non-Starch carbs
    • cellulose
    • hemicellulose
    • pectins
  90. Barley
    • Beta glucan- cant break down
    • -dissolves in water and becomes sticky
    • ok for adult pigs but not for birds
  91. Crude fiber problems
    • it does not simulate what really happens in the GI
    • - sticky stomach from barley
  92. legume: alpha galactosides
    • raffinose: sucrose-galactose (usually low)
    • stachyose: sucrose-galactose-galactose (high in soy)
    • verbascose: sucrose-galactose-galactose-galatose
  93. Cell contents
    • starch, simple sugars- stored within cell
    • -main enzyme amylase (glucose)
    • -stomach pH too low for digestion
    • to much starch in caecum = diarrhea enteropathogens (coliforms)
  94. caecotrophy
    rabbits eating their fecal pellets so that they can digest the fiber in the stomach b/c encased in mucus and increases the pH of stomach
  95. cell wall
    • no endogenous enzymes present
    • -limited digestion in small intestine (bacteria)
    • -fermented to VFAs in caecm
  96. lactose
    in mammal milk, small fat globs, lactase in juviniles to digest
  97. alpha amylase
    • saliva, inactive in stomach, in pancreas
    • - digest starch, dextrin
  98. Small intestine enzymes
    • alpha- oligo- glucosidase, galactosidase, fructofuranosidase
    • digests- maltose, dextrins, lactose, sucrose
  99. starch digestion
    • major energy-yielding component in diets for non-ruminants
    • -complex molecule
    • -crystalline in raw state = less digestion (peas greatest)
    • -needs processing
  100. Weaning
    stressfull, damage to vilia, sever decrease in digestive enzymes for 10-12 days
  101. sites of starch digestion
    • slow release in SI - beneficial to poultry
    • if not in SI goes to LI for fermentation
    • Good: more acid, reduced pathogen
    • Bad: microb proliferation, diarrhea, death, dehydatration
  102. Lipids
    • -diverse group of compounds, not soluble in water, only non-polar organic solvents
    • -related to fatty acids
  103. Fatty acids
    • long chain carbon atoms with terminal methly and carboxy group
    • saturated - single bonds (solid) animal fats
    • unsaturated - double bonds (liquid)
  104. fish oils
    long chains and highly unsaturated, 4-5 double bonds
  105. coconut oil
    highly unsatuated
  106. lipid classification: glycerol-based
    • simple > fat/oil
    • compund > phosphoglycerides > lecithin / cephalins
    • > glycolipids > glucolipids / galactolipids
    • (cell membranes)
  107. lipid classification: non-glycerol based
    • sphingomyelins
    • cerebrosides
    • waxes
    • steroids
    • terpenes
    • prostaglandins (cell function)
  108. Triacylgylercerol (triglycerides)
    glycerol (back bone)+ 3 fatty acids = water + triglyceride
  109. complex lipid
    • lecithin: emuslified fat in nature, phospholipid
    • sterol cholesterol: important in diet
    • cholecalciferol Vit D3: lipid
  110. lipolysis
    pancreatic lipase, emulsification, micelle formation, droplet absorption
  111. long chain FA
    saturated
    sterols, vitamins
    non-polar, poor solubitity in bile salt solution, limited entry into micellar phase
  112. medium chain FA
    Long chain unsaturated
    monoglycerides
    • polar solutes, swelling amphiphiles
    • - high solubility in bile salt, enter micelle
    • -promot of non-polar solutes into micelle phase
  113. implications of chemical structure on digestion of fats
    • unsaturated > saturated
    • Tri > free fatty acids
    • medium chain > long chain
    • interactions between fats of differing saturation
  114. fat digestion - juveniles
    • - limited bile and pancreatic lipase production
    • - gastric lipase (serous glands of tongue)
    • FA absorbed in stomach
    • some TAG & DAG goes to SI
    • hard to get fat from dry diet
  115. fat digestion of juvinels in SI
    • oil drop coated in bile
    • pancreatic co-lipase absorbed onto surface of droplet
    • acts as anchor for pancreatic lipase
    • - hydrolyses of TAG/DAG(Ca++ needed)
  116. micelle
    • molecules arranged in specific alignment
    • lipases act at surface
  117. Absorption of Free faty acids
    • micelle contact w/ membranes
    • - energy dependent (FA binding protein) favor unsaturated
    • - bile salts absorbed further on down the SI (recirculated by enter hepatic circulation)
  118. fat energy
    • - growing and endurance animals need high fat (high in energy) double than carbs
    • - can break down into ketone bodies which are toxic
    • - chemical structure has major effect on energy-yielding value
  119. chemial structure of fats
    • degree of composition
    • - saturation
    • - chain length (14-20 carbons)
    • - triglyceride / free fatty acid
  120. Essential fatty acids
    • Linoleic acid - 18:2 N6 (higher content, less firm)
    • Linolenic acid - 18:3 N3
    • - can't be interconverted, or synthesized from other fats
    • - cell messengers
    • - prostaglandins
    • - precursors
  121. Essential fatty acid metabloism
    • desaturase - add double bond
    • elongase - adds 2 carbons
    • both N3 and 6 start with desaturase then elongase and switch off
  122. essential fatty acids and non essential fatty acids
    • compete for enzymes
    • Ex - oleic can create deficiency of EFA
    • efficiencies further up the path are much better
  123. Eicosapentaenoic Acid - N3 pathway
    • 20:5
    • only in animal and fish sources, most inefficient diet so need this in diet
    • - intermediate
  124. Zinc and Iron
    • involved in chain elongation and desauturation
    • Zinc deficiency: can reduce delta desaturase acitivity
    • exacerbated by: high genetic potential, high Ca(inhibits Zn absorption), fats which inhibit EFA metabloism
    • (becoming more previlant)
  125. Requirments for EFA
    • 5:1 ratio of N6 - N3
    • - better performance, reproduction, immune status, appearance
    • - need high level of antioxidants to prevent oxidation
    • - long chains are unstable
    • - don't use PV to assess oxidation?
  126. healthy fat intake
    • dietary < 1/3 total energy intake
    • saturated < 1/3 total fat intake
    • MUFA:PUFA 2:1
  127. increased unsaturation
    • more unstable cooked and fresh
    • more oxidiation - healthier, can become rancid
    • softer fat- harder to cut
    • metabloic problems when digested
  128. developments in meat quality /science
    • oxidative stability - TBA number, volatile products
    • flavor/aroma - during stoage and production
  129. healthier pig meat
    • interaction with vit E
    • PUFA L E above threshold (healthier) but might break down to early in storage and cooking
  130. Macro mineral
    Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S and others
  131. Trace minerals
    • Fe, I, Zn, CU, Mn, Se, Co, Mo, Cr
    • current accurate list
  132. Minerals - general
    • co-factors in enzymes (Mn in TCA cycle)
    • Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl)
    • Components of other molecules (Co-B12, I-thyroxine, Fe-hemaglobin)
    • structural role (Ca, P, Mg = bone)
  133. Macro:electrolyte balance
    • Na: cation of extracellular fluid, transport across membrane, maintain membrane potential (plasma)
    • Cl: anion of extracellular fluid
    • K: cytosol, membrane action potentials
  134. Water balance with Minerals
    • important for ions, hormones
    • need for angiotensin ll and arginine
    • affects - CNS, Liver, Kidney
  135. Na and K balance
    Na deficiency: kidney>renin>liver> aldosterone ll>adrenals>aldosterone =Renal excretion of K and re-sorption of Na
  136. Ca and P
    • bone mineralisation - hydroxyapatite, non-crystalline phosphates, calcium carbonates
    • Ca: muscle contraction, neuronal transmission, blood clot, enzyme activit
    • P: phospholipids, ATP creatine phosphate, phosphorylation, phosphate buffers
  137. Ca and D3 (1,25 dihydroxy choleclciferol)
    • Ca deficiency increase D3
    • Ca excess decrease in D3
    • CaBP dependent on active for of D3
  138. Hypocalcaemia
    Hypo more common: secretion of parathyroid Hormone, kidney, syn of D3, increase intestinal Ca absorption, or renal resorption of Ca = mobilisation of bone Ca
  139. Hypercalcaemia
    • 1. secretion of calcitonin = no renal Ca resorption
    • 2. inhibition of PTH, Kidney, decrease in D3 = low intestinal absorptionof Ca
    • 3. secretion of Calcitonin CT = stop mobilisation of bone Ca
  140. Milk fever
    • high Ca after giving birth = difficult standing head to side, staggering
    • - give oral Ca salts (borogluconate)
  141. Trace minerals
    small quanitites, to much = toxic
  142. Iron
    • in hemaglobin 2/3, proteins and co-factors
    • 1/4 stored in bone marrow
    • rest in muscle and enzymes
    • Ferrous sulphate and chloride - good
    • ferric oxide and ferrous carbonate - poor
  143. Iron in animals
    • deficiency in foraging animals
    • piglets - IM post partum ferrpus sulphate
    • sow milk low levels
    • loss at navel
  144. Copper
    • function of enzymes (ferroxidase = Cu trans + Fe oxid)
    • cytochrome oxidase = ATP synthesis
    • Tyrosinase = melanin
    • monoamine oxidase = neurotransmitters
  145. Zinc
    • associated with enzymes
    • - active site of component (carbonic anhydrase, alcohol dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase)
    • -structural element of proteins recognize DNA sequences
    • -gene expression/metablism of proteins
  146. Selenium
    • antioxidant with Vit E, regenerates E
    • Co-factor in Glutathione peroxidase- protect from oxidative damage
    • - co-factor for thyroid hormones
  147. Mineral availability
    ultimate response in the animal, unclear as to how much is available
  148. Phosphorus
    expensive, need for bone growth and strength, give to animals that are going to be kept for breeding stock
  149. Intro to Vitamins
    • - organic, required in often in small amounts
    • - can't be synthesised by the animals (ex. Vit C)
    • - performance promoting effect
  150. definition of Nutrient
    specific molecule w/ a precise metabloic function
  151. Fat soluble vitamins
    • A: sight, epithelial cells
    • D: regulats intestion absorption & metabof Ca
    • E: anti-oxidant, immunity
    • K: synthesis of compunds involved in coagulation
  152. Vitamin A
    • Retinol - 7 isomers, trans has greatest activity
    • percursor - Beta carotene
    • cats: can't transform Beta carotene into Vitamin A, need the precursor, can't regulate Vit A uptake = toxicity
  153. Vitamin A decficiency
    • retina - poor sight in dark, blood concentrations, responds fast to treatment
    • Xerophthalmia- drying of cornea, common cause of blindness
    • stage 1: xerosis, dryness of conjunctiva
    • stage 2: keratomalacia, softening of the cornea & 2nd infections, scarring
  154. Vitamin D
    pre-vitamin D3: only 1 hydroxy group, most active form

    • D3- 2 hydroxy groups, most active form
    • -UV radiation D3 is formed from 7 dehydrocholesterol
    • deficiencies = bone deformaties
    • birds and furry animals get from oil on fur/feathers & consumed
  155. Vitamin E
    • alpha most active
    • antioxidant-lipid oxidation, cell membranes
    • stimulation of immune response, antibody production, meat stability
    • Selenium interactions are complementary (free radicals)
    • natural not as stable, commercial are protected
  156. Vitamin K
    • anti-hemorhagic, K1 & K2
    • coagulation factors - prothrombin, prconvertin, antihemophilic factor B, Stuart Factor
    • Bone metabloism, vascular biology
    • deficiency - longer to clot, rodenticides block K1
  157. Vitamin B
    • water soluble
    • protein, carb, lipid, metabolism
    • enzyme systems 1. transfer of molcular groups, 2. oxido-reduction reactions (thiamine to Niacin, B6 to B2)
  158. B vitamin co-enzyme forms
    • Niacin - NAD
    • Riboflavin - FAD, FMN
    • pantothenic acid - co-enzyme A
    • Folic acid - tetrahydrofolate
  159. B Vitamin carriers
    • thiamine - aldehydes - pyruvate dehydrogenase
    • NAD - H ion - alcohol dehydrogenase
    • FAD - H ion - succinic dehydrogenase
    • Coenzyme A - Acyl group - acetly CoA carboxylase
  160. Acetly Co-enzyme A (versatility)
    goes to Krebs cycle, steroids, hormones, bile salts, cholesterol, acetoacetic acid, acetylations, acetylcholine, detoxifications, mucopolysaccharides
  161. Thiamine
    • deficiency - nervous system and heart b/c need for their high amount of oxidation
    • poultry- anorexia, unsteady gate, stargazing
    • ruminants - listless, going in circles,muscle tremors, consuming ferns
  162. Pantothenic acid
    • deficiency - disorders of nervous, gastic, and immune system, lower growth rate, skin lesions and changes in hair coat, alterations in lipid and card metab
    • - rumen produces in high amounts
  163. liver vitamin storage
    A, D, B12, for some time
  164. Cats and Vit A
    to much vit A in liver so don't feed cats liver, causes muscle soreness and sensitivity to touch
  165. Intro to Protein
    • made of AA (amino group NH2, R group, carboxylic group COOH)
    • - peptide bonds, sequence determines protein function
  166. Primary protein structure
    is sequence of a chain of amino acids
  167. Secondary protein structure
    occurs when the sequence of AA are linked by hydrogen bonds
  168. tertiary protein structure
    occurs when certain attractions are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets
  169. quaternary protein structure
    is a protein consisting of more than one AA chain
  170. Animal protein sources
    milk and animal co-products, fish products

    meals, whey,
  171. plant protein sources
    oilseeds, legumes,

    soya canola, palm kernal, cotton seed meal, peas, beans
  172. Crude Protein
    • - determined by N x 6.25
    • - does not count for variable N content of protein, assumes all N is from protein, does not consider protein quality
    • - not sufficient to estimate protein quality
  173. measurements of protein quality
    • Protein efficiency ratio- PER
    • Gross Protein Value- GPV
    • Absolute amount- does not use AA, biological value
    • -overall value of a group of raw materials can be calcualted from the sum of their individual values
    • don't count individual AA
  174. essential AA
    • in diet
    • Iso, lue, val, lys, meth, thre, pheny, tryp, hist
  175. conditionally essential AA
    • can't be synthesised in vivo fast enough for high performance
    • arg, cyst, gly, pro, ser, tyro
  176. non-essential AA
    • can be synthesised in body
    • alan, asp, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine
  177. Ideal protein
    • optimum performance
    • 1. all essential AA
    • 2. AA in the correct proportion balanceone to the other
  178. Sulfur AA
    Met and cys
  179. aromic AA
    Phe & tyr
  180. diets of beans and peas
    • lower growth and increased environmental pressure
    • deficient in M+C or THR
    • animal proteins are usually better quality
  181. leaf germ proteins
    • functional: higher content of essential AA
    • often not bound, higher digestibility
  182. seed/tuber proteins
    • storage: poor content of essential AA
    • bound lower digestibility
  183. first limiting AA
    performance is restricted to the first limiting AA, no benefit in providing extra of others when there is 1 limited AA
  184. AA = performance
    • meat, eggs, milk
    • coat condition, longevity
    • cell membrane permeability, RBC integrity
    • metabolic profiles, plasma urea
  185. Ileal digestibility
    • better than LI: b/c N in LI has no nutritional value, alters AA by de- and trans- amination
    • - hard to measure Ileal digestivity
  186. Protein in Rumen
    • 1. undegradable- not digested in SI , feces
    • -by pass, digested in SI, metabolisable protein
    • 2.degradable protein- peptides/AA, mirco protein, metabolisable protein
  187. Non Protein Nitrogen in Rumen
    • 1.NH3- liver, kidney, urine
    • - microb protein, metabolisable protein
    • 2. salivary glands- liver, kidney, urine
  188. balance of energy and protein
    • protein and fiber need to work together,
    • starch free- high in CP (ethanol production)
  189. Rumen functions adequately
    • breakdown of fiber- VFA
    • protein- microbe protein and ammonia
    • digestion in SI
    • feed the animal and the rumen
  190. Rumen does not Function adequately
    • reduced breakdown of dietary components particularly "fiber"
    • reduced overall dietary efficiency
  191. Rumen digestion of protein in stomach
    • acidic pH
    • pepsin, parapepsin, rennin in ruminants,
    • producing polypeptides
  192. Rumenant digestion in SI
    • pancreatic secretions- trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, caboxypeptidases A/B
    • producing peptides oligopeptides + free AA
  193. factors influencing protein digestion
    protease inhibitors- reduce, growth rate and protein digestibility, increased demand for met and cys, pancreatic hypertrophy
  194. soyben trypsin inhibitors
    • Bowman Birk Inhibitor: 2 active sites, 71 AA, 7 disulphide bonds
    • Kunitz Inhibitor: 1 active site, 181 AA, 2 Disulphide bonds
    • (highest in soy less in peas and other plants)
  195. High temperature processing
    • 2 major ANFs are heat labile, reduced/eliminated by heat
    • 1. Autoclaving- moist heat underpressure
    • 2. Extrusion- wet or dry
    • 3. micronising- gas burners heat ceramis tiles, emit IR waves
    • 4. jet-sploding/expansion- material heated and explodes into area of low pressure
  196. trypsin inhibitor
    greater the intake the more the pancrease weights, are prominant in legumes

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