Beef Quiz 1

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  1. Definition of Mineral
    —Any of the chemical elements required by living organisms that are or can be obtained as inorganic compounds
  2. Two types of minerals
    • —Macro
    • —Micro/Trace
  3. Required Macro Minerals for cows
    —Macro Minerals:Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Sulfur (S
  4. Required Trace minerals for cows
    —Trace Minerals○Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Cobalt (Co), Iodine (I), Iron (Fe), Selenium (Se)
  5. What are minerals important for?
    žMINERALS IMPORTANT FOR: —Physiological Function—Normal tissue growth—Homeostasis—Enzyme Function—Cell Regulation—Immune Function
  6. Macro Minerals Required for cows for lactation and gestation
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Magnesium
  7. Trace Minerals Required for cows for lactation and gestation
    • copper 
    • zinc
  8. Factors affecting mineral content
    —Mineral composition of the soil—Growing conditions (i.e., moisture)—Plant maturity
  9. Legumes, Warm Season, Cool Season grasses
    • —Legumes
    • ○2x Ca as needed
    • ○Zn deficient
    • —Warm Season Grasses/Cool Season Grasses
    • ○Cu and Zn deficient
  10. Symptoms of Mineral Deficiencies
    • žClinical symptoms—Milk Fever, Grass Tetany, Goiter, White Muscle Disease
    • žSubclinical losses such as:—Lower calf crop percentage—Higher pull rate for stressed calves—Lower growth rate
  11. Grass Tetany
    Grass tetany – cows go down and convulse because of neurological problems due to magnesium deficiency
  12. Mineral Requirements CA, P
    • žBone and teeth formation
    • žCa generally adequate in foragesž
    • P generally needed—Unless pasture is fertilized
    • žExceeds 7:1—
    • -Reduced growth, feed efficiency, and reproduction
  13. Mineral requirements MG
    • žEnzyme Function
    • žRequirement change from gestation to lactation occurs rapidly—
    • Metabolic disorder: Grass tetany○Grazing cool season forages
  14. Mineral Requirements NA- Sodium
    • žMaintain cell volume, pH, osmolarityž
    • Must be supplemented
    • -—Forages are low
    • žCattle crave Na
  15. Mineral Requirements K
    žMaintain normal body and organ function
  16. Mineral Requirements S-Sulfur
    • žIncorporated into Amino Acids—
    • -Methionine and Cysteine
    • —Major problem○Antagonist effect S + Mo = decrease              cu availability —Thiomolybdate
  17. Mineral Requirement Co- Cobolt
    —Required for B12 synthesis○By rumen microbes
  18. Mineral Requirements Se
    • —Antioxidant function
    • ○Component of glutathione peroxidase enzymes
  19. —Mineral Requirements Mn-Maganese
    —Role in growth and reproduction
  20. Mineral Requirements Fe- Iron
    • —Oxygen transport—Hemoglobin formation—
    • Oxygen storage and transport in muscle as part of myoglobin—
    • Regulates metabolism—
    • Deficiency not issue in forages—
    • Excess is common which effects Cu
    • ○Supplement doesn’t include Fe
  21. Organic Materials
    • žComplex or chelated to organic ligands—Amino acids or polysaccharides
    • žReduce overall inclusion ratež
    • Reduce environmental impact
    • žSome studies have shown positive responses in cattle due to feeding
    • žMore expensive
  22. To evaluate mineral availability
    • —Liver Biopsies taken
    • ○Most accurate measurement animal’s mineral status
  23. Conclusion to organic supplements
    • žOrganic supplements—
    • Increase pregnancy to AI in Cu deficient cattle
    • —Cattle under stress may benefit from organic sources
  24. Vitamin Definition
    —Organic compound and vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts
  25. Two Classes of Vitamins
    • Fat Soluble: A, D, E, K – stored in fat and liver
    • Water Soluble: Water B complex, C – need regular replacement
  26. žVitamin A
    • For bulls and lactating cows
    • hard to produce because not in plant material 
    • —Normal growth—
    • Reproduction
    • —Maintenance of epithelial tissues
    • —Bone development—Protection from diseases
    • —Protect mammary gland from infection
  27. Grains
    • Few have appreciable amounts of carotenoids
    • Storage can affect Beta Carotene because can be destroyed by sunlight
  28. žVitamin A deficiency
    • —High-concentrate diets
    • —Bleached pasture or hay during drought—
    • Feeds with excess sunlight, air, high temp exposure—
    • Heavily processed or mixed with oxidizing materials
    • —Feed stored for long periods
  29. žVitamin A deficiency signs
    • —Reduced feed intake
    • —Rough hair coat
    • —Edema of joints and brisket—
    • Night blindness—
    • Diarrhea
    • —Seizures
    • —Reproduction problems
  30. Vitamin D
    • žVitamin D
    • —Required for
    • ○Ca and P absorption
    • ○Normal mineralization of bone
    • ○Mobilization of Ca in bone
    • —Must be metabolized to active forms to perform functions
  31. —Rickets in calves
    • žVitamin D Deficiency
    • ○Failure of bone to utilize Ca and P normally
  32. žVitamin E
    • —Occurs naturally in feedstuffs
    • Important in rations with high concentrations
    • Stored in adipose and liver
    • Can have high levels because not toxic
  33. žVitamin E Deficiency
    • —Young calves - white muscle disease
    • ○Muscular dystrophy
    • ○Weak leg muscles
    • ○Crossover walking,
    • ○Impaired suckling ability
    • ○Heart failure
    • ○Paralysis
    • ○Hepatic necrosis
  34. žVitamin K
    • —Required for – Blood clotting
    • ○Plasma clotting factors prothrombin
    • Produce in Rumen, consume regularly, and can prevent clotting
  35. žVitamin K Deficiency
    —Sweet Clover Disease○Consume moldy clover hay—Dicoumarol○Lead to prolonged blood clotting○Uncontrolled hemorrhages
  36. Water Soluble Vitamins
    • žVitamin B12
    • žContains 4.5% cobaltž
    • Naturally occurring forms à Plant + Animal tissues
  37. žVitamin B12 Functions
    • —Metabolism of nucleic acids and proteins
    • —Metabolism of fats and CHOs
    • —Purine and pyrimidine synthesis
    • —Transfer of methyl groups—
    • Propionate Metabolism
  38. Thiamin
    • Important with glucose metabolism
    • -Glucose to the brain
    • Thiamin deficiency affects nervous system
  39. žCholine
    —Essential for building and maintaining cell structure
  40. Water
    • ž98 % of all molecules in the body
    • žRequirement
    • -—Composition of gain, lactation, activity, diet, feed intake, temperature
    • žDiet high in salt, protein, minerals = more water
    • žRestrict water = reduces feed intake = lower production
    • žLose water in —Urine, sweat, feces
    • žNot all water requirements is met by drinking water
    • -—High energy feeds = more water produced
Card Set:
Beef Quiz 1
2016-01-19 19:16:28
ASCI 311 Quiz

ASCI 311 Advanced Beef Production Quiz 1
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