Political Science 1

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  1. CA MASTER PLAN FOR EDUCATION
    The CA Master Plan for Education was put into place by Governor Pat Brown in 1960. Providing full government funding for CA’s CCCs, CSUs, and UCs. Where a small service fee was paid per semester no more than $40. Since the drastic cuts of government subsidies including higher education, the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. Because education has become too expensive, access to higher education is becoming harder. Eventually the middle class will be no longer. According to Matthews back then there was an average of an CEO make 40 times more than a middle class worker, today it is 400 times more.
  2. PLATO’S JUSTICE
    “To do one’s own business and not to be a busybody is justice.” (Republic 433b.) Although the modern reader may find it odd, this is the definition of justice Plato offers. The idea is that justice consists in fulfilling one’s proper role – realizing one’s potential whilst not overstepping it by doing what is contrary to one’s nature. This applies both to the just state and to the just individual. In the just state, each class and each individual has a specific set of duties, a set of obligations to the community which, if everyone fulfils them, will result in a harmonious whole. When a person does what he is supposed to do, he receives whatever credit and remuneration he deserves, and if he fails to do his task, he is appropriately punished. Plato believed in hierarchy, meaning your purpose in life is your justice.
  3. MAPP v. OHIO
    • (1961) The Court held that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment ban on unreasonable searches and seizures would be excluded from trial. Exclusionary rule: Any evidence that is illegally or unlawfully seized is admissible in state court.
    • Fourth Amendment: Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures.
    • Plain View Doctrine: Any item found in plain view is pursuant to a lawful search, though cannot be listed in a warrant can be taken as evidence.
  4. CIVIL LIBERTIES
    • A legally protected freedom to act or not to act or to be free from unwanted government intrusion, into one's life. Procedural Amendments:
    • 4. Right of search and seizure regulated
    • 5. Provisions concerning prosecution
    • 6. Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc.
    • 8. Excessive Bail; cruel punishment
    • Due Process: Protection against the arbitrary deprivation of life liberty or property as for the 5th and 14th amendments.
  5. AMERICAN DREAM
    According to Matthews in Dollar Democracy 99% of Americans the American Dream is having a great paying job that will allow us to purchase our own home, raise children, enough money to enjoy vacation annually, generate enough income to put our children through college (to provide a better life than the parent), and enough money for other desires. However, the most of the top %1 and supporters believe that the American Dream means becoming millionaires or billionaires, at all cost. Even if it means cutting corners and abusing political positions in power. Lobbying money and influencing constituents.
  6. FREE/FAIR TRADE
    Free trade is another factor that has contributed to the economies destruction. In Dollar Democracy Matthews explains how free trade has been influenced by wealth investors, corporate donors, and lobbyists who benefit from cheap labor in low wage countries. He also states that NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement) has cost the United States millions of jobs. The Fair trade would have protected American jobs and salaries. For example, before the U.S. government signed agreements with Mexico, that Mexico must first raise its labor standards.
  7. FOREIGN POLICY ROLES
    • - Napoleonic War like and Interventionists
    • - Holy Alliance: Makes use of every kind of political weapon available in order to keep the strong government in power
    • - Balance of Power: Plays the major powers against each other so that no great power or combinations of great and lesser powers can impose conditions on others
    • - Economic Expansionist: Focuses on the question whether a nation state has anything to buy or sell and whether its entrepreneurs corporation or government agencies will honor their contracts
  8. FOREIGN POLICY-CENTRAL PROPOSITIONS
    • - All nation states of interest, some are shared by or with other nation states
    • - Along with interests nation states are concerned in furthering goals with foreign policy
    • - National interests are directly related to Geography
    • - Power is that which enables a nation state, to pursue power there by the more power, the more secure the nation state
    • - Nation states do not have friends, they have interests
  9. BUREAUCRACY
    The complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large-scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel.

    Parkinson's Law l: Work expands to fill the time available for its completion

    Max Weber(1864-1920):

    • Chain of Command
    • Division of Labor
    • Specific Authority
    • Impersonality
    • Goal Oriented
    • Predictability of behavior
  10. IMPEACHMENT
    An actual impeachment resembles a criminal indictment in which the house acts as a grand jury.

    • - Investigation in to charges are done by the House, judiciary committee supports voted for recommendation to impeach
    • - The House can go through with Impeachment with simple majority
    • - Questions of criminal guilt or innocence is then determined by trial, conducted in the Senate
    • - The chief justice of the U.S presides
    • - A vote of 2/3 of the Senate is required for conviction and removal of office
  11. FORMAL POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
    • - chief executive
    • - sworn to office, to protect
    • - 17 cabinet departments, 60 major agencies and commissions to aid him
    • - chief of state
    • - commander and chief (navy, army, etc.)
    • - chief diplomat
    • - chief legislator
    • - President is the chief of his party
    • - The President is the crisis manager

    Real powers depends on agenda setting and persuasion
  12. COMMITTEES/SUBCOMMITTEES
    a) Purpose: To consider bills, conduct hearings, and investigations

    b)Type: Standing committees(permanent), Joint committees(members contains house and senate), Conference committees(reconcile differences in bills), and Special/Select committees.

    c) Most standing committees are divided into an 'Iron Triangle'

    d) Subcommittees are growing in number which leads to a fragmentation of power, authority, and responsibility
  13. MIRANDA v. ARIZONA
    • (1966) Court’s ruling required that arrested persons be informed of the right to remain silent and to have counsel present during interrogation.
    • Sixth Amendment: Right to a speedy and public trial. Right to an impartial jury. Opportunity to confront witnesses.
    • Details: Miranda was accused of rape and when captured by police, he was not informed of his legal rights. He admitted to the crime against his will due to sleep deprivation, and was later on acquitted because of the violation of the sixth amendment(even though he was actually guilty).
  14. CONSTITUTION: SEVEN ARTICLES
    • 1. The Legislative Branch
    • House: Two-year terms, elected directly by the people
    • Senate: six-year terms, direct election Expressed powers of the national government: collecting taxes, borrowing money, regulating commerce, declaring war, and maintaining an army and a navy; all other power belongs to the states, unless deemed otherwise by the necessary and proper clause.
    • Exclusive powers of the national government: states are expressly forbidden to issue their own paper money, tax imports and exports, regulate trade outside their own borders, and impair the obligation of contracts; these powers are the exclusive domain of the national government.
    • ---------------------------------------------------
    • 2. The Executive Branch
    • Presidency: four-year terms (limited in 1951 to a maximum of two terms), elected indirectly by the electoral college.
    • Powers: can recognize other countries, negotiate treaties, grant reprieves and pardons, convene Congress in special sessions, and veto congressional enactments.
    • ---------------------------------------------------
    • 3. The Judicial Branch
    • Supreme Court: lifetime terms, appointed by the president with the approval of the Senate.
    • Powers: include resolving conflicts between federal and state laws, determining whether power belongs to national government or the states, and settling controversies between citizens of different states.
    • -------------------------------------------------
    • 4. National Unity and Power Reciprocity among states: establishes that each state must give “full faith and credit” to official acts of other states and guarantees citizens of any state the “privileges and immunities” of every other state
    • -------------------------------------------------
    • 5. Amending the Constitution Procedures: requires two-thirds approval in Congress and three-fourths adoption by the states.
    • -------------------------------------------------
    • 6. National Supremacy
    • The Constitution and national law are the supreme law of the land and cannot be overruled by state law
    • -------------------------------------------------
    • 7. Ratification
    • The Constitution became effective when approved by nine states
  15. SOCIAL CONTRACT
    This is the belief that the state only exists to serve the will of the people, and they are the source of all political power enjoyed by the state. They can choose to give or withhold this power.

    British Philosophers; Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
  16. CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS
    Amendments to the Constitution which gave civil and legal protection to former slaves. The amendments were made to the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. 

    • Thirteenth Amendment: Abolished slavery.
    • Fourteenth Amendment: The amendment authorized the government to punish states that abridged citizens’ right to vote by proportionally reducing their representation in Congress. It banned those who “engaged in insurrection” against the United States from holding any civil, military, or elected office without the approval of two-thirds of the House and Senate. The amendment prohibited former Confederate states from repaying war debts and compensating former slave owners for the emancipation of their slaves.
    • Fifteenth Amendment: Ratified February 3, 1870, the amendment prohibited states from disenfranchising voters “on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” The amendment left open the possibility, however, that states could institute voter qualifications equally to all races and many former confederate states took advantage of this provision, instituting poll taxes, and literacy tests, among other qualifications.
  17. SHAYS REBELLION
    Daniel Shays led a mob of farmers, who were protesting foreclosures on their land, in a rebellion against the state government. In January 1787, Shays and the rebels attempted to seize a federal armory in Springfield, Massachusetts. Congress was frightened by Shay’s retaliation which caused them to revise the constitution. (Fall/Winter 1786-87).
  18. McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND
    (1819) The issue was whether Congress had the power to charter a bank, in particular the Bank of the United States, because no power to create banks was found anywhere in Article 1, Section 8. Chief Justice John Marshall representing the Supreme Court, stated that such power could be implied from the other powers in Article 1, Section 8, specifically the commerce clause, plus the final clause enabling Congress “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers.” Thus the Court created the potential for significant increases in nation governmental power. Another issue in the case was whether Maryland’s attempt to tax the bank was constitutional. The argument was that a legislature representing the people(Congress) could not be taxed out of business by a state legislature(Maryland) representing only a small portion of the American people. Also, the Supreme Court recognized and reinforced the supremacy clause: whenever a state law conflicts with a federal law, the state should be deemed invalid because “the Laws of the United States…. shall be the supreme Law of the Land.”
  19. WAR POWERS ACT
    A resolution of Congress declaring that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of congress of if U.S. troops are already under attack or seriously threatened.
  20. OLIGARCHY
    a form of government in which a small group of landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants’ controls most of the governing decisions.
  21. Essay Topic: decline in the power of Congress and the ascendancy of the Executive.
    Congress was in power from 1800-1933, and they gained their power back in the 1973 due to the War Powers Act. in result of the Vietnam war all thanks to Nixon. FDR really made the role of President much more that A Face that takes orders and feeds it to the people. With his fireside chats, he was able to appeal to the people, and that's how he obtained his followers/support For his New Deal. Before this, congress members were the ones that would deal with the press, and the Speaker of the House along with the leaders of Senate were viewed as the most powerful political figures in America.

    FDR New Deal: The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term (1933–37) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

    Vietnam: Nixon authorized an invasion in Cambodia and fallaciously used his executive power, cause the Congress to regain control.

    Watergate: Nixon used federal agencies for his own personal use

    Impoundment Control Act 1974: Nixon abused his power to impound funds when opposed to certain programs.

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: Enacted in 1964 after an attack on the USS Maddox, giving The President to declare war, without the approval of Congress. Allegedly, there was another attack on August 4th, 1964, however after further investigation, this was proven untrue.
  22. Essay Topic: factors that contribute to the occurrence of factions within society; means of redress as put forward by Plato and Madison.
    1. Factors that contribute to the occurrence of Factions within society; Chief cause of factions is largely attributed to the discrepancy of economic interests between those who have property/wealth and those who do not. Those who are rich and those who are not. Even in the smallest city there are two cities. A city of the rich and a city of the poor. (One of Plato’s main ideas)

    2. Means of factions/redress as put forward by Madison: Factions are defined as a number of citizens united by a common interest adverse to the interests of other citizens or to the community as a whole.

    • - Two methods of curing the mischief of factions are; Removing the causes and Controlling the effects
    • - Two methods of removing the causes are; Destroying the liberty essential to its existence and Giving to every citizen the same opinions, the same passions, and the same interests
    • - Two methods of curing the mischief of factions are; The use of a republic instead of a direct democracy as a form of government and A great variety of parties increases the security against any one faction being able to outnumber and oppress the rest. Checks and Balances.

    3. Plato's Redress: Give every man his due diligence. Correlate individual justice with state justice and create a hierarchy rather than anarchy, oligarchy, tyranny, etc.
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Political Science 1
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2016-01-20 13:50:40
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