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An Operating System does these 3 things:
Exploits the hardware resources of one or more processors (cores)
Provides a set of services (system calls) to system users.
Manages main/secondary memory and I/O devices
A processor (1 of 3) controls the _?_ of the computer.
A processor controls the operation of the computer.
A processor (1 of 3) performs the _?_ _?_ functions
A processor performs the data processing functions
A processor (1 of 3) is referred to as the _?_ _?_ _?_ (_?_)
A processor (1 of 3) referred to as the Central Processing Unit (CPU).
Main Memory is _?_ (1 of 3 points)
Main Memory is Volatile
Contents of the memory are _?_when the computer is shut down
Contents of the memory are lost when the computer is shut down.
Memory is also referred to as _?_ memory or _?_ memory
Memory is also referred to as real memory or primary memory
I/O modules moves data between the computer and _?_.
I/O modules move data between the computer and external environments.
External environments are:
- Storage (e.g. hard drive)
- Communications equipment (NIC)
Interrupts do what?
Interrupt the normal sequencing of the processor
Interrupts are provided to _?_
Provided to improve processor utilization --
Interrupts why? 3 items:
- Most I/O devices are slower than the processor.
- Processor must pause to wait for device
- Wasteful use of the processor.
I/O Function: analogous to/ same as __?__
It is the same as when a processor is interacting with memory, the only difference is it is interacting with a specific device.
Common Classes of Interrupts; Name four:
- Hardware Failure
Program Class Interruptions: what are some examples
- arithmetic overflowdivision by zero
- attempt to execute an illegal machine instruction, and reference outside a user's allowed memory space.
Common Classes onf Interrupts: Program
Generated by some condition that occurs as a result of an instruction execution.
Common Classes onf Interrupts: Timer
Generated by a timer within the processor. This allows the operating system to perform certain functions on a regular basis.
Common Classes onf Interrupts: I/O
Generated by an I/O controller, to signal normal completion of an operation or to signal a variety of error conditions.
Common Classes onf Interrupts: Hardware failure
Generated by a failure, such as power failure or memory parity error.
What is a System Bus?
Provides for communication
- main memory
- I/O modules
What is a Microprocessor?
Invention that brought about desktop and handheld computing
Four Microprocessor fun facts:
- Processor on a single chip
- Fastest general purpose processor
- Each chip contains multiple processors (core)
What are Graphical Processing Units (GPUs)?
Provide efficient computation on arrays of data using Single-Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) techniques
What does SIMD stand for?
Single-Instruction Multiple Data
What are GPUs used for?
General numerical processing
- Physics simulations
- Computations on large spreadsheet
What are Digital Signal Processors ?
Deals with streaming signals such as audio or video
Three DSP fun facts:
- Used to be embedded in devices like modems
- Encoding/decoding speech and video (codecs)
- Support for encryption and security
What is System on A Chip (SoC)?
- Created to satisfy the requirements of handheld devices, the microprocessor is giving way to the SoC, Puts many different components on chip, in addition to memory.
SoC part II: what else is placed on the chip with the CPU?
- main memory
Instruction Execution: A program consists of a set of instructions stored in memory what are the two steps:
(1) processor reads (fetches) instructions from memory.
(2) executes each instruction.
Draw the Basic Instruction Cycle
Describe Instruction Fetch and Execute
(1)The processor fetches the instruction from memory.
(2) Program counter (PC) holds the address of the instruction to be fetched next.
(3) PC is incremented after each fetch.
Instruction Register (IR)
A Container for the fetched instruction.Fetched instruction is loaded into Instruction Register (IR)
After the instruction is fetched and placed into the Instruction Register, what happens.
the instruction and performs required action
- Data processing
Define: Microkernel (wikipedia):
is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS). These mechanisms include low-level address space management, thread management, and inter-process communication (IPC).
A process contains three components:
- an executable program
- the associated data needed by the program (variables, work space, buffers, etc.)
- the execution context (or “process state”) of the program