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  1. meninges
    • layers of CT that surround the brain and spinal cord, inside the skull/vertebrae.  
    • Includes pia mater, arachnoid and dura mater
    • protect, compartmentalize, support vasculature
  2. ventricles
    • 5 fluid-filled spaces within nervous tissue of the brain, surrounding tissue makes up 5 parts of the brain.  Arise from neural canal.  
    • Shape is a clue to location of transverse sections
    • similar to central canal in spinal cord
  3. telencephalon (parts of)
    2 cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) that cover the diencephalon and mesencephalon and meet each other dorsally, caudally and rostrally
  4. brainstem (parts of)
    diencephalon, mesencephalon, ventral metencephalon, myelencephalon
  5. dorsal metencephalon (parts of)
  6. mesenchephalon
  7. ventral metencephalon
  8. myelencephalon
    • medulla
    • cranial nerves VI-X and XII arise here
  9. prosencephalon
    • forebrain
    • telencephalon + diencephalon
    • "higher-level" functions (conscious awareness, decision making, learning, complex motor behavior).  
    • Deficits: conscious perception, behavioral motor abnormalities, postural reaction deficits, seizures
    • sensory and motor function is CONTRALATERAL
  10. caudal brainstem
    • midbrain + pons + medulla oblongata
    • function of cranial nerves III-X and XII.  Gait, vital functions (resp, HR, BP, consciousness).  Motor and sensory pass through
  11. cerebellar lesions
    lesions produce signs like ataxia, intention tremors and exaggerated movements (hypermetria), vestibular dysfunction.
  12. myeloschisis
    • a cleft (schesis) in the spinal cord (myelo) due to incomplete closure of neural tube 
    • Overlying spinal arches not forming is spina bifida
  13. meningocele, meningomyelocele, meningoenchephalocele
    cyst-like (cele) protrusion of meninges alone, meninges + spinal cord tissue, or meninges + brain tissue through a defect in vertebral column or calvaria (myelo usually caudal, Manx and bulldogs)
  14. spina bifida
    defective closure of vertebral arch.  also, rachischisis when a large number of vertebrae involved (rachi = spinal)
  15. cranioschesis
    • defective closure of calvaria
    • secondary to rostral neural tube lack of closure or meningocele/meningoenchephalocele
  16. end result of neurulation is
    • neural tube
    • pseudostratified neuroepithelium that lines neural canal.  Even before fully closed, changing to reflect what they will become.  Open in rostral and caudal directions.
  17. dorsal root ganglia are made of
    neural crest cells becoming bipolar then pseudounipolar neurons
  18. sulcus limitans
    • longitudinal groove in lateral wall of neural canal.  Divides caudal brain and spinal cord grey matter into dorsal and ventral regions
    • sits between basal and alar plates.  Neurons at this junction between plates become visceral efferent neurons and intermediate grey/lateral horn.
  19. alar plate
    • dorsal to sulcus limitans, neurons involved in sensory processing
    • become dorsal horn of spinal cord, axons form dorsal root
  20. basal plate
    • ventral to sulcus limitans, neurons become LMN
    • forms ventral horn of spinal cord, axons form ventral root
  21. choroid plexus(es)
    • vascular structures in brain and spinal cord that generate CSF
    • formed from surface capillaries in close contact with ependymal cells of roofplate (dorsal aspect of neural tube)
  22. 5 parts of the brain (5 vesicle stage)
    • telencephalon (fore, lateral ventricles), diencephalon (fore, 3rd ventricle)
    • mesencephalon (mid, mesencephalic aqueduct)
    • metencephalon (hind, pons (v), cerebellum (d), ros 4th ventricle), myelencephalon (hind, medulla, cd 4th ventricle)
  23. ependymal cells
    epithelial cells that line ventricles and central canal of spinal cord
  24. Pontine Sensory Nucleus of CN V
    develops from alar plate (lateral to sulcus limitans), near Pons
  25. pontine nuclei
    • alar plate neuroblasts from pons that migrate ventrally (ventral to basal plate)
    • send axons to cerebellum to form transverse fibers of pons on ventral metencephalon and middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP) on lateral metencephalon
  26. transverse fibers of the pons
    ventral area where pontine nuclei send axons to cerebellum (ventral to basal plate)
  27. middle cerebellar peduncles (MCP)
    lateral area of metencephalon where pontine nuceli send axons to cerebellum
  28. cerebellum development
    develops from alar plate and ependymal cells, dorsal to Pons and 4th ventricle, comes to overlie myelencephalon as well.
  29. cerebellar patterns of grey matter organization
    • cerebellar cortex (superficial)
    • cerebellar nuclei (deep)
    • White matter is between, surrounds nuclei.
  30. cerebellar peduncles
    • rostral, middle and caudal
    • axons going to and from cerebellum.
    • anchor cerebellum to brainstem
  31. tectum
    • alar plate expansion dorsal to roofplate in mesencephalon.  
    • contains 4 dorsal prominences, including rostral and caudal colliculi
  32. rostral and caudal colliculi (little hills)
    • dorsal prominences of the tectum of the mesencephalon.  
    • rostral = vision
    • caudal = audition
  33. mesencephalic aqueduct
    • ventricle/neural canal of the mesencephalon/midbrain
    • No choroid plexus because the roofplate is surrounded by nervous tissue
  34. mesencephalic tegmentum
    • ventral to tectum, rostral continuation of the medulla and pons.  
    • basal plate holds motor nuclei of CN III and IV
  35. crus cerebri
    • part of mesencephalon ventral to midbrain tegmentum
    • axons travelling from cerebral cortex to carry motor signals to brainstem and spinal cord
  36. four regions of the diencephalon
    • dorsal to ventral:
    • epithalamus
    • thalamus
    • (subthalamus) (we don't care)
    • hypothalamus
  37. pineal gland
    • most prominent part (sheep, cats) of the epithalamus (most dorsal part of diencephalon).  
    • circadian rhythms, limbic and endocrine
  38. thalamus
    • large, 2nd-most dorsal part of diencephalon.  
    • bulges from interthalamic adhesion, heart-shaped
    • "gateway to cerebral cortex"(most thalamic neurons go through internal capsule to reach cortex
  39. interthalamic adhesion (ITA)
    area in diencephalon that thalamus bulges out of
  40. internal capsule
    • white matter structure that is part of thalamus,
    • where most thalamic neurons project through to reach cerebral cortex.  
    • Reason thalamus is called "gateway to cerebral cortex"
    • Slips of white matter extending to the gyri of cortex are corona radiata
  41. hypothalamus
    • most ventral part of diencephalon, lateral to ventral 3rd ventricle.  
    • Neuroendocrine, autonomic and homeostatic functions
  42. hypophysis
    • aka pituitary gland
    • attached to hypothalamus (ventral-most diencephalon), neurohypophysis develops from there.  Adenohypophysis comes from stomodeum.
  43. interventricular foramen
    where 3rd ventricle and lateral ventricles meet (are continuous).  blood vessels that supply choroid plexus of 3rd continue here to form choroid plexus' of the lateral ventricles
  44. basal nuclei
    • population of neurons in telencephalon, develops adjacent to ventricles, ventromedial, deep to cortex.  
    • Include caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala, septal nuclei and nucleus accumbens
  45. cerebral cortex
    • composed of laminae/layers of neurons that have migrated to surface of brain
    • all on surface except hippocampal formation
    • white matter is deep to grey matter
    • 3 regions: paleocortex, archichortex, neocortex
  46. 3 regions of cerebral cortex
    • paleocortex
    • archicortex
    • neocortex
  47. paleocortex
    • part of cerebral cortex
    • appears early in evolutionary history
    • includes olfactory bulbs, olfactory peduncles, piriform lobes
  48. archicortex
    • part of cerebral cortex
    • appears early in evolutionary history
    • includes hippocampal formation and fornix
    • deep.  Pushed there by expansion of neocortex
  49. Neocortex
    • part of cerebral cortex
    • most developed in "higher" animals, covers neo and paleo in larger domestic mammals
    • 4 lobes with sulci and gyri, internal capsule, corpus callosum
  50. 4 lobes of neocortex
    frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
  51. sulci and gyri (sulcus and gyrus)
    grooves and crests of brain, like ribbon candy
  52. coronal radiata
    slips of white matter extending from internal capsule to gyrus of cerebral cortex
  53. corpus callosum
    white matter/axons that connect left and right cerebral hemisphere
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2016-01-23 20:33:21

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