The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
What is gerontology?
the study of aging from maturity through old age
What is ageism?
a form of discrimination against older adults based on their age, which comes about due to myths of aging
Who is ageism against?
Though it is not just against older adults, the elderly population gets that type of treatment all of the time
What is the life-span perspective?
- The Life-Span Perspective divides human development into two phases:
- 1) early (infancy, childhood, and adolescence)
- 2) later (young adulthood, middle age, and old age)
Life-Span Perspective cont.
____ identified FOUR key features of this perspective. What are they?
Paul Baltes (1987)
- historical context
- multiple causation
development involves both growth and decline
Examples of multidirectionality
- 1) Mental tasks increase, but speed of use decreases
- 2) Acceptance of things goes up (ex: death), while fear declines
- 3) increase in vocabulary
Skills can be trained/ improved even later in life with limitation
Examples of plasticity
Using post-it notes to increase memory`
circumstances associated with the historical time we are born
Examples of historical context
development is impacted by biopsychosocial and life cycle forces
--> when the same event can affect/ impact someone differently depending on when it happened
Example of multiple causation
having a child
Explain the demographics of aging
There are more people over the age of 88 than ever before.
Why are there more people over 88?
- health care improveents
- less women killed during childbirth
- baby boomers (1946-1964)
What are concerns with population trends?
entitlement programs such as social security and pension systems such as Medicare
What is the demographic trend of the US in 2000?
The middle aged people are the most prominent. Women live longer
What is the demographic trend of the US in 2025?
More people are living longer. There are very similar percentages among those less than five and those up to 69
What is the demographic trend of the US in 2050?
The population is leveling out. By 2100, there will be a relatively uniform population.
- This is when the Baby Boomlet occurs.
- Pop: 400 million
- 20% will be 65+
What is the problem with leveling out of the population?
If old surpasses the young, who pays for social security, for exampe?
What is the point of all of those?
Although people in this country will live longer, we will still have a strong youthful population, which is crucial. This is unlike in other countries. For example, China will lose 10% of its population.
Explain diversity of older adults in the US
- Adults among minority groups are increasing.
- Future adults will be better educated--> Domino effect
Domino effect: better jobs--> higher income/ resources--> better health care--> healthier lifestyles
Essentially, better education leads to better decisions
Diversity of older adults in the US continued
Individualism vs. collectivism
individualism: US is individualistic; 'I' am the focus competitive; me, me, me
Collectivism: about the group; group before everything
What is the impact of individualism ad collectivism on the elderly?
Impact on intervention with the elderly population
For example, individualistic people will say, "Leave the elderly alone."
Diversity of older adults in the US continued
Though the Hispanic population is growing significantly (800%), non-Hispanic European Americans will still dominate
Population trends around the world
The number of older adults will increase dramatically in nearly all areas of the world over the next few decades
What is the concern about the increasing number of older adults?
- Birth rate declines
- resource limitations
- economic conditions
- jobs and health care strains
True or False:
Almost all of the world will have a large population of elderly.
What four main forces shape development?
- biological forces
- psychological forces
- social forces
- life-cycle forces
- They include all genetic and health related factors
- - brain part sizes
- - metabolism/ hormones
- - family medical histories
- include all internal perceptual, cognitive (memory, problem-solving, learning and logic), emotional, and personality factors
- - How you interpret things
include interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors
- - society we live in
- - religion
- - ethnicity
Life- cycle forces
Reflect differences in how the same event or combo of biopsychosocial forces affects people at different points in life
Examples: pregnancy and technology
The Forces of Development
- What makes us people?
Biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces all hit you throughout life and, combined with life-cycle forces, they make you a person
Biological, psychological, sociocultural--> Life-cycle forces--> Person
What are developmental influences?
- Cohort effect
- normative age-graded influences
- normative history-graded influences
- non-normative influences
culture and ethnicity
group of people born at the same point in historical time (depend on when you're born)
Normative age-graded influences
- experiences caused by biopsychosocial forces that occur to most people of particular age
- ex: puberty, menopause
- --> Things everyone goes through
Normative history-graded influences
events that most people in the same culture experience; influences that impact you because of your culture (major events)
ex: Pearl Harbor, 9/11, Baby Boomers
Random or rare events that may be important for a specific individual but are not experienced by most
ex: winning the lottery, losing a job
culture: shared basic value orientations, norms, beliefs, and customary habits and ways of living
beliefs, etc. all the different features of your family
ethnicity: individual and collective sense of identity based on historical/ cultural group membership and related behaviors and beliefs
culture that you have a membership in as your country of origin; where our family came from
The meaning of age
Primary aging: normal, disease-free development during adulthood
Secondary aging: developmental changes that are related to disease, lifestyle, and other environmentally induced changes that are not inevitable (i.e., pollution/ lifestyle affects you/ they happen)
Tertiary aging: rapid losses that occur shortly before death; terminal drop (you're gone quickly)
Definitions of age
index variable for your age
age you think of yourself as
functional level of organ system
functional level of the abilities used to adapt to changing environments (memory, intelligence, feelings, motivation, etc.)
specific set of roles an individual adopts to other members of society (marriage, children, careers, stereotypes, dress, language, etc.)
Nature versus nurture controversy
genetics or the environment
it is actually both: interactionist approach
Change versus Stability
Continuity versus Discontinuity Controversy
- Smooth or abrupt changes
- amount versus kinds
- plasticity--capacity learned/ improved with practice
Universal Versus Context-Specific Development Controversy
All people or some instances
Measurement in research
reliability: the extent to which it provides a consistent index of the behavior or topic of interest
validity: the extent to which it measures what researchers think it measures
systematic observation: watching people and recording what they do or say
Type of systematic observation
naturalistic observation: going into the real world
structured observation: used for rare/ difficult to study (i.e. emergencies); used in real world but made to happen/ drills and recording
Sampling behavior with tasks
create tasks that are thought to sample the behavior of interest; make them do behaviors that you're interested in studying
people's answers to question about the topic of interest
measures attitudes and feelings about something
- random sample: everyone ha equal chance of being selected
- representative sample: have to represent what you are studying
- biased sample not random nor representative
- random assignment: randomly put them into groups of research
What is the goal of population research methods?
Take population sample--> research--> apply findings to entire population, which is generalizability
- - independent variables: manipulated
- - dependent variables: measured
- - Experimental group: gets independent variable
- - Control group: doesn't get independent
- Other considerations:
- - Experimental bias
- - placebo effect: give them a pseudo thing
- - double-blind study
What can experimental design do?
Cause and effect
- Pearson's 'r'
- --> +/- correlations
- --> size 0-1
Cause and effect cannot be determined because a third variable exists
it is a correlational coefficient that can be between 0 and 1
- r=0 (no relationship)
- r=1 (perfect relationship, which will never happen because that would mean cause and effect
- r= 0.1-0.3 (weak)
- r= 0.4-0.6 (mild)
- r= 0.7-0.9 (high)
positive r= either both are going up or both are going down
negative r= one goes up and one goes down
Designs for studying development
- cross-sectional designs
- longitudinal designs
- sequential designs
- testing different ages, same time
- cohort/ age effects
- quick and inexpensive
- same individuals; repeated times
- i.e. microgenetic study
- age/ time of measurement effects
combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal
Effects that can affect results?
age effects (within subjects)= biopsychosocial changes at various ages and their effects
cohort effects= unique to the generation
time of measurement effects--> socio-cultural, environmental, and historical events at the time data obtained; confounding variables
allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
- take all of the different variables and blend them into one
- --> powerful tool
- --> determines whether a finding generalizes across many studies that used different methods
Conducting research ethically does what?
- minimizes risks to research participants
- describes the research to potential participants--> informed consent
- avoid deception--> debriefing
- results should be anonymous or confidential