Infection Module Pharm Terms

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  1. Antibiotic
    Having the ability to destroy or interfere with the development of a living organism.  the term is used most commonly to refer to antibacterial drugs.
  2. Antiseptic
    One of two types of topical antimicrobial agents; a chemical that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms without necessarily killing them.  Antiseptics are also called static agents
  3. Bactericidal Antibiotics
    Antibiotics that kill bacteria
  4. Bacteriostatic Antibiotics
    Antibiotics that do not actually kill bacteria but rather inhibit their growth
  5. Beta-lactam
    The designation for a broad class of antibiotics that includes four subclasses: penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams; so named because of the beta-lactam ring that is part of the chemical structure of all drugs in this class.
  6. Beta-lactamase
    Any of a group of enzymes produced by bacteria that catalyze the chemical opening of the crucial beta-lactam ring structures in beta-lactam antibiotics. e.
  7. Beta-lactamase Inhibitors
    Medications combined with certain penicillin drugs to block the effect of beta-lactamase enzymes.
  8. Colonization
    The establishment and growth of microorganisms on the skin, open wounds, or mucous membranes, or in secretions without causing an infection
  9. Community-associated infection
    An infection that is acquired by persons who have not been hospitalized or had a medical procedure recently
  10. Definitive Therapy
    The administration of antibiotics based on known results of culture and sensitivity testing identifying the pathogen causing infection
  11. Disinfectant
    one of two types of topical antimicrobial agents; a chemical applied to nonliving objects to kill microorganisms.  Also called cidal agents
  12. Empiric therapy
    Thea dministraiton of antibiotics based ont he practitioner's judgement of the pathogens most likely to be causing an apparent infection; it involves the presumptive treatment of an infection to avoid treatment delay before specific culture information has been obtained.
  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
    An inherited disorder in which the red blood cells are partially or completely deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme in the metabolism of glucose. Certain medications can cause hemolytic anemia in patients with this disorder. This is an example of a host factor related to drug therapy.
  14. Health care-associated infection
    An infection that is acquired during the course of receiving treatment for another condition in a health care facility. The infection is not present or incubating at the time of admission; also known as a nosocomial infection.
  15. Host factors
    Factors that unique to a particular patient that affect the patient's susceptibility to infection and response to various antibiotic drugs.  Examples include a low neutrophil count or a lack of immunoglobulins int he blood that carry antibiodies
  16. Infections
    Invasions and multiplications of microorganisms in body tissues
  17. Microorganisms
    Microscopic living organisms; also called microbes
  18. Phophylactic antibiotic therapy
    Antibiotics taken before anticipated exposure to an infectious organism in an effort to prevent the development of infection
  19. Pseudomembranous colitis
    A potentially-necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy; often caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile. A more general term that is also used is antibiotic-associated colitis.
  20. Slow acetylation
    A common genetic host factor in which the rate of metabolism of certain drugs is reduced
  21. Subtherapeutic
    Generally refers to blood levels below therapeutic levels due to insufficient dosing. Also refers to antibiotic treatment that is ineffective in treating a given infection. Possible causes include inappropriate drug therapy, insufficient drug dosing, and bacterial drug resistance.
  22. Superinfection
    (1) An infection occurring during antimicrobial treatment for another infection, resulting from overgrowth of an organism not susceptible to the antibiotic used. (2) A secondary microbial infection that occurs in addition to an earlier primary infection, often due to weakening of the patient's immune system function by the first infection.
  23. Teratogens
    Substances that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus
  24. Therapeutic
    Referring to antibiotic therapy that is given in sufficient doses so that the concentration of the drug in the blood or other tissues renders it effective against specific bacterial pathogens.
  25. Concentration-dependent killing
    A property of some antibiotics, especially aminoglycosides, whereby achieving high plasma drug concentrations, even if briefly, results in the most effective bacterial kill
  26. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)
    A group of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some organisms that makes the organism resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) and aztreonam. Patients who are infected by such organisms must be in contact isolation; proper handwashing is key to preventing the spread of these organisms.
  27. Klebsiella penumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)
    An enzyme first found in isolates of the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae that renders the organism resistant to all carbapenem antibiotics as well as beta-lactam antibiotics and monobactams. Such organisms produce a very serious resistant infection.
  28. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
    A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to the beta-lactamase penicillin known as methicillin. Originally, the abbreviation MRSA referred exclusively to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It is now used more commonly to refer to strains of S. aureus that are resistant to several drug classes, and therefore, depending on the context or health facility, it may also stand for “multidrug-resistant S. aureus.
  29. Microgram
    One millionth of a gram. Be careful not to confuse it with milligram (one thousandth of a gram), which is one thousand times greater than 1 microgram. Confusion of these two units sometimes results in drug dosage errors.
  30. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
    A laboratory measure of the lowest concentration of a drug needed to kill a certain standardized amount of bacteria.
  31. Multidrug-resistant organisms
    Bacteria that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial drugs. These include multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing organisms, and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing organisms.
  32. Nephrotoxicity
    Toxicity to the kidneys, often drug induced and manifesting as compromised renal function; usually reversible upon withdrawal of the offending drug.
  33. Ototoxicity
    Toxicity to the ears, often drug induced and manifesting as varying degrees of hearing loss that is likely to be permanent.
  34. Postantibiotic effect
    A period of continued bacterial suppression that occurs after brief exposure to certain antibiotic drug classes, especially aminoglycosides (discussed in this chapter) and carbapenems.  The mechanism of this effect is uncertain
  35. Pseudomembranous colitis
    A necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy. Some antibiotics (e.g., clindamycin) are more likely to produce it than others. More commonly referred to as antibiotic-associated colitis or Clostridium difficile diarrhea or C. difficile infection.
  36. Synergistic effect
    Drug interaction in which the bacterial killing effect of two antibiotics given together is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
  37. Therapeutic drug monitoring
    Ongoing monitoring of plasma drug concentrations and dosage adjustment based on these values as well as other laboratory indicators such as kidney and liver function test results; it is often carried out by a pharmacist in collaboration with medical, nursing, and laboratory staff.
  38. Time-dependent killing
    A property of most antibiotic classes whereby prolonged high plasma drug concentrations are required for effective bacterial kill (compare concentration-dependent killing)
  39. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
    Enterococcus species that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin. Most commonly refers to Enterococcus faecium.
  40. Antimetabolite
    A drug that is a either a receptor antagonist or that resembles a normal human metabolite and interferes with its function in the body, usually by competing for the metabolite's usual receptors or enzymes.
  41. Dermatophyte
    one of several fungi that are often found in soil and infect the skin, nails, or hair of humans
  42. Ergosterol
    The main sterol in fungal membranes
  43. Fungi
    A very large, diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that require an external carbon source and that form a plant structure known as a thallus. Fungi consists of yeasts and molds
  44. Molds
    multicellular fungi characterized by long, branching filaments called hyphae, which entwine to form a complex branched structure known as a mycelium
  45. Mycosis
    The general term for any fungal infection
  46. Pathologic fungi
    Fungi that causes mycoses
  47. Sterols
    Substances in the cell membranes of fungi  to which polyene antifungal drugs bind
  48. Yeasts
    Single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding
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Infection Module Pharm Terms
2016-01-24 05:37:47
infection module pharm. terms from the Lilley book
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