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How does a virus get intot he cell?
the answer depends on the type of virus and cell type
- Bacterial cells: there are various barriers to cross, such as the cell wall
- Human cells: multiple barriers, some of which might be of own making
How do enveloped viruses get in?
- fuse envelope with plasma membrane
- endocytosed as whole particle and fused later on in the endosome
How do naked viruses get in?
A lot of viruses have mechanisms for __ either right off the bat or later in the cell. Once the genetic material gets in, what?
- there are signals to turn on genes and begin making more structures
Penetration through cellular membranes:
- Passage from __ to the __ is often triggered by a __.
The pH gets lower as endosomes travel. Viruses use this low pH as a trigger to change their formation to cause fusion and release
Membrane fusion is mediated by __.
- specific viral fusion proteins
- Generally type I transmembrane proteins that contain fusion peptides
- Class I fusion proteins
- Class II fusion proteins
Explain fusion proteins
They both have hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains
What makes a fusion protein a fusion protien is a short, hidden, hydrophobic fusion peptide. It is designed as an anchor that will reach out and fuse the membranes, eventually pulling it in and allowing viral entry
Class II fusion protiens
have the same effect as Class I but a flatter structure.
It reaches out, snaps back, and pulls the membrane together, breaching the defenses of our cells.
Low pH triggers viral proteins to do this (fuse)