Science Multi-Subject Subtest

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  1. Define the Terrestrial Planets and the Jovian Planets.  Describe the Mass of the Planets in the Solar System. 
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    The Terrestrial Planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.  These are the four planets closest to the sun.  They are called Terrestrial because they all have a compact, rocky surface similar to the Earth's.  Venus, Earth and Mars have significant Atmospheres, but Mercury has almost no atmosphere.

    The Jovian Planets are Jupiter (largest) Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.  They are called Jovian because of their huge sizes in relationship to that of earth, because they have a gaseous nature like Jupiter.  Although gas giants, some or all of Jovian planets have small, solid cores. 

    Pluto does not have the characteristics necessary to fit into either Terrestrial or the Jovian group.  The sun represents 99.85 of all the matter in the solar system.  Combined, planets make up only .135% of the mass of the solar system, with Jupiter having twice the mass of all the other planets combined.  The remaining .015% of mass comes from comets, planetary satellites, asteroids, meteoroids and interplanetary medium.

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  2. Discuss Magnetic Fields and current and magnetic domains. 
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    A Magnetic Field can be formed not only by a magnetic material, but also by electric current flowing through a wire.  When a coiled wire is attached to the two ends of a battery, for example, an electromagnet can be formed by inserting a ferromagnetic material such as an iron bar within the coil.  When electric current flows through the wire, the bar becomes a magnet.  If there is no current, the magnetism is lost.  A magnetic domain occurs when the magnetic fields of atoms are grouped and aligned.  These groups form what can be thought of as miniature magnets within the material.  This is what happens when an object like an iron nail is temporarily magnetized.  Prior to magnetization, the organization of atoms and their various polarities are somewhat random with respect to where the North and South poles are pointing.  After magnetization, a significant percentage of the poles are lined up in one direction, which is what causes the magnetic force exerted by the material. 
  3. Compare and contrast physical and chemical properties and changes.  
    Both physical changes and chemical reactions are everyday occurrences.  Physical changes do not result in different substances.  For example, when water becomes ice it has undergone a physical change, but not a chemical change.  It has changed it's form, but not its composition.  It is still H20.  Chemical properties are concerned with the constituent particles that make up the physicality of a substance.  Chemical properties are apparent when chemical changes occur.  The chemical properties of a substance are influenced by its electron configuration which is determined in part by the number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number).  Carbon, for example, has 6 protons and 6 electrons.  It is an element's outermost valence of electrons that mainly determine its chemical properties.  Chemical reactions may release or consume energy.  
  4. List some subjects that can be covered in the personal health portion of Science class.  
    Among the personal and social perspectives of science are issues of personal and public health care:  

    The importance of regular exercise to the maintenance and improvement of health.

    The need for risk assessment and educated decisions to prevent injuries and illnesses because of the potential for accidents and the existence of hazards.  

    The risk of illness and the social and psychological factors associated with the use of tobacco products.  

    The dangers of abusing alcohol and other drug substances, including addiction and damage to body functions.  

    The energy and nutrition values of various foods, their roll in growth and development, and the requirements of the body according to variable factors.   

    The complexities of human sexuality and the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases.  

    The relationship between environmental and human health, and the need to monitor soil, water and air standards.  
  5. Compare and contrast heat and temperature.  
    Heat is energy transfer other than direct work from one body system to another due to thermal contact.  Everything tends to become less organized and less orderly over time (entropy).  

    In all energy transfers, therefore, the overall result is that the energy is spread out uniformly.  This transfer of heat energy from hotter to cooler objects is accomplished by conduction, radiation, or convection.  Temperature is a measurement of an object's stored heat energy.  More specifically, temperature is the average kinetic energy of an object's particles.  When the temperature of an object increases and its atoms move faster, kinetic energy also increases.  Temperature is not energy since it changes and is not conserved.  Thermometers are used to measure temperature.   
  6. Explain how to draw a concusion after an experiment.
    Conclusions are based on data analysis and background research.  The scientist has to take a hard look at the results of an experiment and check the accuracy of data to draw preliminary conclusions.  These should be compared to the background research to find if the preliminary conclusion can be supported by previous research experiments.  If the results do not support the hypothesis or if they are contrary to what the background research predicted, then further research is needed.  The focus should be on finding a reason for the different results.  Finally, the Scientist provides a discussion of findings that includes a summary of the results of the experiment, a statement of whether the hypothesis was proven or dis-proven, a statement of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable, a summary and evaluation of the procedures of the experiment (including comments about successes and effectiveness) and suggestions for changes/modifications in procedures for further studies.   
  7. Define Mass, Weight, Volume, Density, and Specific Gravity.  
    Mass is the measure of the amount of substance in an object.  

    Weight is a measure of the gravitational pull of Earth on an object.  

    Volume is a  measure of the amount of space occupied.  There are many formulas to determine volume.  Example:  the volume of a cube is the length of one side cubed (a³) and the volume of a rectangular prism is length times width times height (lwh).  The volume of an irregular shape can be determined by how much water it discplaces. 

    • Density is a measure of the amount of mass per unit volume.  The formula is mass divided by volume (D=m/V).  It is expressed in terms of mass per cubic unit such as grams per cubic centimeter g/cm³).  
    • Specific gravity:  This is a measure of the ratio of a substance's density compared to the density of water.  
  8. Discuss different types of energy.  
    Two types of energy:  Kinetic energy (the energy of motion) and potential energy (which depends of relative position or orientation).  There are however other types of energy.  

    Electromagnetic wavers are a type of energy contained by a field.

    Another type of Potential Energy is electrical energy, which is the energy it takes to pull apart + and - electrical charges.  

    Chemical energy refers to the manner in which atoms form into molecules, and this energy can be released or absorbed when molecules regroup.  

    Solar energy comes in the form of visible light and non visible light, such as infrared and UV Rays.  

    Sound Energy refers to the energy in sound waves.   
  9. Discuss the Structure of Atoms.  
    All matter consists of Atoms.  Atoms consist of a nucleus and electrons.  The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons.  The properties of these are measurable.  They have mass and an electrical charge.  The nucleus is positively charge due to the presence of protons.  Electrons are negatively charged and orbit the nucleus. The nucleus has considerably more mass than the surrounding electrons.  Atoms can bond together to make molecules.  Atoms that have an equal number of protons and electrons in an atom is not equal, the atom has a positive or negative charge and is an ion.  
  10. Explain risk and benefit of analysis as studied in the personal and social perspectives of Science.  
    Risk Analysis considers the type of hazard and estimates the number of people who might be exposed and the number likely to suffer consequences.  The results are used to determine options for reducing or eliminating risks. 

    Example:  the Center for Disease Control must analyze the risk of a certain new virus strain causing a Pandemic, how many people and what age groups need to be vaccinated first, and what precautions can be taken to guard against the spread of the disease.  (A pandemic is the worldwide spread of a new disease).

    Risk and benefit analysis involves having students consider the dangers of nature (major storms) chemical (pollution) biological (pollen and bacteria), social (occupational safety and transportation), and personal approach to think critically about these hazards, apply probability estimates to the risks, and compare them to estimated and perceived personal and social benefits.  
  11. List the 5 kingdoms of life forms and give a brief description of each.  
    All living creatures can be classified into one of these kingdoms:  

    Moneran Kingdom-  This group contains the simplest known organisms (prokaryotes). Members have just one more chromosome, reproduce asexually, may have flagella, and are very simple in form.  They are either bacteria or blue-green algae).  

    Protist Kingdom:  This group contains the simplest Eukaryotes.  They have a true nucleus surrounded by a membrane that separates it from cytoplasm.  Most are one celled and have no complex tissues like plants.  They are Algae and Protozoa.  

    Fungi Kingdom:  They have no chlorophyll, so they don't make their own food like plants.  They reproduce using spores.  Fungi are made up of filaments called Hyphae that, in larger fungi, can interlace to form a tissue called Mycelium.  Fungi include mushrooms and microscopic organisims that may be parasitic.  

    Plant Kingdom:  This group consists of all multi-celled organisms that have chlorophyll and make their own food.  Plants have differentiated tissues and reproduce sexually or asexually.  

    Animal Kingdom-  This group consists of all multi celled organisms that have no chlorophyll and have to feed on existing organic material.  Animals have the most complex tissues and can move about.
  12. Describe Erosion  
    It's a process that breaks down matter, whether it is a rock that is broken into pebbles or mountains that are rained on until they become hills.  

    Denudation:  The erosion of land by weather or breaking waves.  

    Mass wasting is the movement of masses of dirt and rock from one place to another.  This occurs mechanically (ex-breaking a rock with a hammer) or chemical (pouring acid on a rock until it dissolves).  

    If the material changes color, it indicates that a break down was chemical in nature.  Whatever is broken down must go somehwere, so erosion eventually builds something up.  Ex-an eroded mountain ends up in a river that carries the sediment towards the ocean, where it builds up and creates a wetland or delta at the mouth of the river.  
  13. Explain how Geologists match rocks and geologic events in one place with those of another.  
    Geologists physically follow rock layers from one location to another by a process called walking the outcrop.  Geologists walk along the outcropping to see where it goes and what the differences and similarities of the neighboring locations they cross are.  

    Similar rock types or patterns of rock layers that are similar in thickness, composition, and fossil remains tell geologists that 2 locations have a similar geologic history.  

    Fossils are found all over the earth, but are from a relatively small time period in earth's history.  Therefore, fossil evidence helps date  a rock layer, regardless of where it occurs.

    Volcanic Ash is a good time indicator since ash is deposited quickly over a widespread area.  Matching the date of eruption to the ash allows for a precise identification of time.  Similarly, the meteor impact at the intersection of the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods left a time marker.  Wherever the Meteor's Iridium content is found, Geologists are able to date rock layers.  
  14. Describe the formation of Glaciers
    They start high in the mountains, where snow and ice accumulate inside a cirque (a small semicircular depression).  The snow becomes firmly packed into masses of coarse-grained ice that are slowly pulled down a slope by gravit.  

    Glaciers grow with large amounts of snowfall and diminish if warm weather melts more ice than can be replaced. 

    Glaciers once covered large areas of both the northern and southern hemispheres with mile thick ice that carved out valleys, fjords, and other land formations.  They also moved plants, animals, and rocks from one area to another.  

    Two types of glaciers:  1.  Valley (which produced a U shaped erosion and sharp peaked mountains.  2.  Continental (which moved over and rounded mountain tops and ridges.)

    These glaciers existed during the ice ages, the last of which occurred from 2.5 million years ago to 12,000 years ago.
  15. Compare and contrast Autotrophs, Producers, Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores, and Decomposers.
    Energy flows from one direction from the sun, through Photosynthetic Organisms such as green plants (Producers) and algae (Autotrophs) and then to Herbivores, Carnivores and Decomposers.  

    Autotrophs are organisms capable of producing their own food.  The organic molecules they produce are food for all other organisms (Heterotrophs).  

    Producers are green plants that are manufacture food by photosynthesis.  

    Herbivores are animals that eat only plants (deep and rabbits) Since they are the first animals to receive energy captured by producers, Herbivores are called Primary Consumers.  

    Carnivores or Secondary Consumers-  are animals that eat the bodies of other animals for food.  

    Predators (wolves and lions) kill other animals, while Scavengers consume animals that are already dead from Predation or natural causes (buzzards).  

    Omnivores are animals that eat both plans and other animals.  

    Decomposers include Saprophytic Fungi that break down the complex structures of the bodies of living things into simpler forms that can be used by other living things.  This recycling processes releases energy from organic molecules.
  16. Explain Meiosis.  There are 8 Stages.  
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    Living organisms have the ability to reproduce. Meiosis is the process by which an organism's€™ sex cells replicate in order to reproduce an offspring. Meiosis begins with one cell and after two divisions, four daughter cells containing half the needed DNA is the result. This process causes a genetic shuffle as the DNA (or more specifically genes) that is chosen for each new cell is completely random. There are five phases in the meiosis process but most of them occur twice.

    These five phases are: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and interphase.The first round of divisions is often referred to as Meiosis I. Basically the chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell and as the cell divides, they are pulled to either side. During this process, the chromosomes divide randomly so that no two cells contain the exact same match. At the end of Meiosis I, there are two new cells. If this division where occurring in a normal body cell, this would be the end of the replication process. Before the cells begin Meiosis II, they enter a brief stage called Interphase.

    Meiosis II contains the same phases as Meiosis I. The daughter cells produced in Meiosis I each go through a division. This time the DNA does not divide. Some DNA goes with each new cell so the new cells have half as much DNA as the original cell. In order for these new cells to become a new organism, they must combine with other cells of the same kind.

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    • MEIOSIS I Remember that homologous chromosomes have the same genes, but they are NOT exact copies of each other.  Before meiosis I begins, each chromosome is duplicated, or copied.  Each half of the duplicated chromosome is called a chromatid.  Chromatids are connected to each other by Centromeres.  Duplicated chromosomes are drawn in an X shape.  Each side of the X represents a Chromatid, and the point where they touch is the Centromere. During meiosis I, pairs of homologous chromosomes and sex chromosomes split apart into two new cells.  These cells each have one-half of the chromosome pairs and their duplicate Chromatids.  The steps of Meiosos I are shown below.
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    MEIOSIS II:  This process involves both of the new cells formed during meiosis I. The chromosomes of these cells are not copied before meiosis II begins.  Both of the cells divide during meiosis II.   The steps of meiosis II are shown above.Meiosis II results in four haploid sex cell.  In male oganisms, these cdlls develop into sperm cells.  In female organisms, these cells become eggs (ovum).  In females of some species, three of the cells are broken down and only one haploid cell becomes an egg (ovum).
  17. Explain the process of Mitotic Cell Replication 
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    • Mitosis is the duplication of a cell and all its parts, including DNA, into 2 identical daughter cells.  There are 5 phases in the life cycle of a cell.  
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    • Prophase is the process of duplicating everything in preparation for division.  
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    • Metaphase is when the cell's pieces align themselves for the split.  the DNA lines up along the central axis and the Centrioles send out specialized tubules that connect to the Centromere (2 strands of a chromosome or condensed DNA) attached to it.
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    • Anaphase is a process where Half of the Chromosomes go one way and half go another.  
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    • Telophase is when the Chromosomes get to the side of the cell, the cell membrane then closes in and splits the cell in two.  This results in two separate cells, each with half of the original DNA.  
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    • Interphase is when the cycle is about to start again, but is not an official part of Mitosis.  It is the normal state of the cell, or the resting stage between divisions.  During this stage, the cell duplicates nucleic acids in preparation for the next division.
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  18. What is the difference between Mitosis and Meiosis 
    Mitosis and Meiosis are both methods of cell division, however they accomplish two very different goals: mitosis yields two identical daughter cells with full genomes, while meiosis produces 4 unique cells each with half of the normal number of genes.

    Meiosis is only used in gametes to produce germ cells, such as sperm and egg cells. Mitosis is, essentially, used everywhere else. An easy way to keep the two straight is the phrase "mitosis in my toes, meiosis in my ovaries".The two follow essentially the same movements, but to achieve two different goals. Because mitosis produces identical cells, it is mainly used in the growth of a single organism.

    Meiosis, on the other hand, produces unique cells with half genomes. These cells can be combined with the appropriate cell type from another individual to produce genetically unique offspring, contributing to variation and evolution.

    • Mitosis is cellular replication that produces two identical daughter cells that have the same number of chromosomes as the mother cell. Meiosis is cellular replication that produces four daughter cells that have half the chromosomes as the mother cell. Mitosis is primarily used for growth of an organism or repair of tissues that have been damaged. Therefore, mitosis is a very common process. Meiosis, on the other hand, produces gametes (sperm and egg) for reproduction.
  19. Explain how plants manufacture food.  
    Plants are the only organisms capable of transforming inorganic material from the environment into organic matter by using water and solar energy.  This transformation is made possible by chloroplasts, flat structures inside plant cells.  Chloroplasts, located primarily in the leaves, contain chlorophyll (pigment capable of absorbing light and storing it in chemical compounds), DNA, Ribosomes and numerous Enzymes.  Chloroplasts are surrounded by a membrane.  The leaves of plants are the main producers of oxygen, which helps purify the air.  

    • The Chlorophyll in Chloroplasts is responsible for the light, or luminous, phase of photosynthesis.  The energy it absorbs breaks down water absorbed through the roots into hydrogen and oxygen to form ATP molecules that store energy.  The dark phase, when the plant has no light, the energy molecules are used to attach carbon dioxide to water and form glucose, a sugar.
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  20. Define the Parts of an animal Cell.
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    Cell Membrane - the thin layer of Protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The Cell Membrane is SemiPermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.

    • Centrosome - (also called the "Microtubule Organizing Center") a small body located near the Nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating Tubules.

    Centrosomes:  Where Microtubules are made. During cell division (Mitosis), the Centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell.

    The Centriole is the dense center of the Centrosome.

    Cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell Nucleus in which the organelles are located.

    Golgi Body - (also called the Golgi Apparatus or Golgi Complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like Organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the Membranes that surround the Lysosomes. The Golgi body packages Proteins and Carbohydrates into membrane-bound Vesicles for "export" from the cell.

    Lysosome - (also called Cell Vesicles) Round Organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive Enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.

    Mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped Organelles with a double membrane. The Inner Membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called Cristae).

    The Mitochondrion converts the energy stored in Glucose into ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) for the cell.

    Nuclear Membrane - the Membrane that surrounds the Nucleus.

    Nucleolus - an Organelle within the

    Nucleus - it is where Ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one Nucleolus.

    Nucleus - spherical body containing many Organelles, including the Nucleolus.

    The Nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling Protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in Chromosomes).

    The Nucleus is surrounded by the Nuclear Membrane.

    Ribosome - small Organelles composed of RNA-rich Cytoplasmic granules that are sites of Protein Synthesis.

    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's Cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer Nuclear Membrane).

    Rough ER is covered with Ribosomes that give it a rough appearance.

    Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called Cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the Cell Membrane).

    Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, Membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's Cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the Outer Nuclear Membrane).

    The space within the ER is called the ER Lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests Lipids (fats) and membrane proteins

    Smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made Proteins and Lipids to the Golgi Body;  Lysosomes, and Membranes.

    Vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The Vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.
  21. What are the differences between plant cells and animal cells?  
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    Differences: Plant cells have Centrioles or Intermediate Filaments.  They also have a more square shape and contain Chloroplasts. Plants have a cell wall that is made up of Fibrils of Cellulose.  Plants and animal cells divide to form new cells.  Plant cells produce their own food or energy.  Animal cells must obtain food from a source outside of the body.

    Alike: Plant and Animal Cells have a Plasma Membrane, a Nucleus, a Nucleolus, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Peroxisomes, and Microtubles.

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  22. Define the different parts of a Plant Cell.  
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    Cell Wall:  The cell wall is a rigid structure outside the Cell Membrane that supports and protects the cell (for Plants, Fungi, and some Protists and Bacteria).The Cell Wall is made of tough Cellulose Fibers and other materials made by the cell.

    The Cell Membrane is a structure that forms the outer boundary of the cell and allows only certain materials to move into and out of the cell.  Food, oxygen and water move into the cell through the membrane. Waste products also leave through the membrane.

    Golgi Bodies are stacks of membrane-covered sacs that package and move proteins to the outside of the cell. Golgi bodies are the packaging and secreting Organelles of the cell.

    Vacuole Membrane:  This is the thin layer that separates the vacuole from the cytoplasm.  This thin membrane allows materials to move in and out of the vacuole.

    Vacuole:  Within a cell, a vacuole fills a role similar to a suitcase; as a temporary storage space for the cell.  They store water, food, pigments, waste or other materials.

    Nucleus:  The largest Organelle in the Cytoplasm of a Eukaryotic Cell is usually the Nucleus, a structure that directs all the activities of the cell. The Nucleus is like a manager who directs everyday business for a company and passes on information to new cells. The Nucleus contains genetic blueprints for the operations of the cell.

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell. The ER extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane and takes up quite a bit of space in some cells.The ER is like a system of conveyor belts in a business. They act as tunnels in which materials move from one place to another within the cell.

    Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called chlorophyll. This is what makes plants green.Chloroplasts take in sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to make oxygen and sugar (a form of food). This process is called photosynthesis.

    Cytoplasm is the gel-like material inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus.Cytoplasm contains a large amount of water and many chemicals and structures that carry out the life processes in the cell. These structures that the cytoplasm contains are called organelles.

    Vacuole Membrane:  This is the thin layer that separates the Vacuole from the Cytoplasm.  This thin membrane allows materials to move in and out of the Vacuole.

    Vacuole:  Within a cell, a Vacuole fills a role similar to a suitcase; as a temporary storage space for the cell. Vacuoles store water, food, pigments, waste or other materials.

    Nucleus:  The largest organelle in the cytoplasm of a Eukaryotic Cell is usually the Nucleus, a structure that directs all the activities of the cell.  The Nucleus is like a manager who directs everyday business for a company and passes on information to new cells. The nucleus contains genetic blueprints for the operations of the cell.

    Endoplasmic ReticulumThe Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a folded membrane that moves materials around in the cell. The ER extends from the nucleus to the cell membrane and takes up quite a bit of space in some cells.The ER is like a system of conveyor belts in a business. They act as tunnels in which materials move from one place to another within the cell.

    Chloroplasts contain a green pigment called Chlorophyll. This is what makes plants green.  Chloroplasts take in Sunlight, Water and Carbon Dioxide to make oxygen and sugar (a form of food). This process is called Photosynthesis.

    • Cytoplasm is the gel-like material inside the Cell Membrane and outside the Nucleus. Cytoplasm contains a large amount of water and many chemicals and structures that carry out the life processes in the cell. These structures that the Cytoplasm contains are called Organelles.
  23. Define the Euphotic Zone, the Bathyal Zone and the Abyssal Zone of the Oceans.  
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    The Euphotic Zone is the surface area of deep ocean water where there is a lot of sunshine and oxygen.  Therefore, there may be small Photosynthetic Organisms.  There are very few nutrients however, because they fall to the bottom. 

    The Bathyal Zone is the area further down that has dim light and little to no organisms.  It does have some small fish that go to feed the organisms on the surface.  

    The Abyssal Zone is on the bottom of the ocean where it is pitch black.  There are no Producers and little Oxygen.  This zone is very cold and has high pressure.  There are predator fish and living organisms that feed on whatever falls from the surface.  

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  24. Describe the Respiratory System, examples of diseases and interactions with other systems.
    The respiratory system exchanges gases with the environment.  Amphibians exchange gases through their moist skin and fish use gills, but mammals, birds, and reptiles have lungs.  The human respiratory system is made up of the nose, mouth, pharynx, trachea and two lungs.  The purpose is to bring oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide. 

    The respiratory system can inhale viruses, bacteria and dangerous chemicals so it is vulnerable to toxins and diseases such as pneumonia, which causes the lungs to fill with fluid until they cannot take in enough oxygen to support the body.  Emphysema, often caused by smoking tobacco, destroys the tissues in the lungs, which can't be regenerated.  

    The respiratory system interacts with the digestive system in that the mouth and pharynx are used to swallow food and drink, as well as to breathe.  It interacts with the circulatory system in that it provides fresh oxygen through blood vessels that pass through the lungs.  This oxygen is then carried by the circulatory system throughout the body.    
  25. Discuss Solutions
    A solution is a Homogeneous Mixture.  A mixture is two or more different substances that are mixed together, but not combined chemically.  Solutions consist of a solute (a substance that a substance that is dissolved) and a solvent (a substance that does the dissolving).  An example is sugar and water.  The solvent is the water and the solute is the sugar.  The Intermolecular Attraction between the solvent and the solute is called Solvation.  

    Hydration refers to solutions in which water is the solvent.  Solutions are formed when molecules of the solute and solvent are as strong as the individual molecular forces of the solute and the solvent.  

    Ex:  salt NaCL dissolves in water to create a solution.  The NA+ and the CL- ions in salt interact with the molecules of water and vice versa to overcome the individual molecular forces of the solute and the solvent.   
  26. List some properties of bases
    • When they are dissolved in Aqueous Solutions, some properties of bases are that they conduct electricity, change red litmus paper to blue, feel slippery and react with acids to neutralize their properties.  A weak base is one that doesn't completely ionize in an aqueous solution and usually has a low PH.  Strong bases can free protons in very weak acids.  
    • EX:  strong bases are hydroxide compounds such as potassium, barium and lithium hydroxides.  Most are in the first and second groups of the Periodic Table. 

    A Superbase is extremely strong compared to Sodium Hydroxide and can't be kept in an Aqueous Solution.  Superbases are organized into organic, organometallic and inorganic classes.  Bases are used as insoluble catalysts in heterogeneous reactions and as catalysts in Hydrogenation.  
  27. Define the Components of Scientific Experimentation:  Hypothesis, Theory, Law, Control, Constants, Independent Variables, and dependent Variables.  
     Hypothesis:  Tentative Supposition about a Phenomenon (fact or set of facts) made in order to examine and test its logical or empirical consequences through investigation or methodological experimentation.  

    Theory:  Scientifically proven, general principle offered to explain a phenomena.  A theory is derived from Hypothesis.  It is verified by experimentation and research.  

    Scientific Law:  An accepted conclusion about a body of observations to which no exceptions have been found.  Scientific laws explain things.  They don't describe things.  

    Control:  A normal, unchanged situation used for comparison against experimental data.  

    Constants:  Factors in an experiment that remain the same.  

    Independent Variables:   Factors, Traits or conditions that are changed in an experiment.  A good experiment has only one independent variable so that the Scientist can track one thing at a time.  The Independent Variable. changes from experiment to experiment.  

    Dependent Variables:  Changes that result from variations in the independent variable. 
  28. Explain Science as a series of Processes.
    Science is not just steps of experimentation, but rather a process of posing a question, forming an hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, recording data and drawing a conclusion that is at the heart of the Scientific Inquiry.  There are other processes that are important as well.  Once the Scientist has completed the testing of a hypothesis with a possible theory, the Scientist should then go through the process of getting feedback from colleagues, publishing an article about the work in a peer reviewed journal, or other wise reporting the results to the Scientific Community, replicating the experiment for verification of results (by the original scientist or others, and developing new questions.  

    Science is not just a means of satisfying curiosity, but it is also a process for developing technology, addressing social issues, building knowledge, and solving everyday problems.  
  29. Define Atomic Number, Neutrons, Nucleon and Element.  

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    Atomic Number (Proton Number):  The atomic number of an element refers to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.  It is a unique identifier.  It can be represented as Z.  Atoms with a neutral charge have an atomic number that is equal to the number of electrons.  

    Neutrons: The uncharged atomic particles contained within the nucleus.  The number of neutrons in a nucleus can be represented as N.  

    Nucleon: This refers collectively to the neutrons and protons.  

    Element:  matter with one type of atom.  It can be identified by its atomic number, or is the number of protons in its nucleus.  There are about 117 elements currently known, 94 which occur naturally on Earth.  Elements from the periodic table include Hydrogen, Carbon, Iron, Helium, Mercury, and Oxygen.  
  30. Define Thermal Contact
    Thermal contact refers to energy transferred to a body by a means other than work.  A system in thermal contact with another can exchange energy with it through the process of heat transfer.  Thermal contact does not involve direct physical contact.  Heat is energy that can be transferred from one body or system to another without work being done.  Everything tends to become less organized and less useful over time (Entropy).  In all energy transfers, therefore, the overall result is that the heat is spread out so that objects are in thermodynamic equilibrium and that the heat can no longer be transferred without additional work.  
  31. Define and Discuss Electric Charges as they relate to Atomic Structure.  
    Electric Force:  attractive force between the electrons and nucleus.  A positive + or negative - charge creates a field of sorts in an empty space around it, which is known as an electric field.  

    The direction of a positive charge is away from it and the direction of a negative charge is towards it.  

    An electron within the force of the field is pulled towards a positive charge, because an electron has a negative charge.  A particle with a positive charge is pushed away or repelled by another positive charge.  Like charges repel and opposite charges attract.  

    Lines of force show the paths of charges.  Electric force between 2 objects is proportional to the product of the charge magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between two objects.  Electric charge is measured with the unit Coulumb (C).  It is the amount of charged moved in one second by a steady current of one ampere (1C=1Ax1s).  
  32. What are 4 basic laws of Thermodynamics.
    The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that 2 objects in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a third object are also in Equilibrium with each other.  Being in Thermodynamic Equilibrium basically means that different objects are at the same temperature.  

    First Law:  Deals with Conservation of Energy.  Neither Mass nor Energy can be destroyed.... Only converted from one form to another.  

    Second Law:  The Entropy (Amount of energy in a system that is no longer available to work or the amount of disorder in a system) of an isolated system can only increase.  The second law also states that heat is not transferred from a lower temperature system to a higher temperature system, unless additional work is done.  

    The third law of thermodynamics states that as temperature approaches absolute zero, entropy approaches a constant minimum.  It also states that a system cannot be cooled to absolute zero.
  33. Define PH and Discuss the PH Scale.

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    The potential of Hydrogen (PH) is a measurement of the concentration of Hydrogen Ions in a substance in terms of the number of moles of H+ per liter of solution.   A lower PH indicates a higher H+ per liter of solution.  A lower PH indicates a higher H+ Concentration, while a higher PH indicates a lower H+ Concentration.  

    Pure water has a neutral PH, which is 7.  Anything with a PH lower than water (less than 7) is considered acidic.  Anything with a PH higher than water (greater than 7) is a base.  

    Drain cleaner, soap, baking soda, ammonia, egg whites, and sea water are common bases.  Urine, stomach acid, citric acid, vinegar, hydrochloric acid and battery acid are acids.  

    A PH Indicator is a substance that acts as a detector of hydrogen or Hydronium Ions.  It is Halochromic, meaning it changes color to indicate that Hydrogen or Hydronium Ions have been detected.    
  34. Name and Describe the Planets

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    Our Solar System has eight “official” planets which orbit the Sun. Here are the planets listed in order of their distance from the Sun:  Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. An easy mnemonic for remembering the order is “My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Noodles.”

    All the planets revolve around the Sun which is an Average sized Star in the Milky Way Galaxy.  They all revolve in the same way around circular orbits in the same direction.  All the planets are in or near the same plane, called ecliptic, and the axis of rotation is nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic.  The exceptions are that Uranus and Pluto are tipped on their sides.  
  35. Explain the Doppler Effect
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    Dop·pler ef·fectnounPHYSICSan

    It is an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other. The effect causes the sudden change in pitch noticeable in a passing siren, as well as the redshift seen by astronomers.
  36. Explain the differences between Abiotic and Biotic Factors.
    Abiotic factors refer to non-living physical and chemical elements in the ecosystem. Abiotic resources are usually obtained from the lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Examples of abiotic factors are water, air, soil, sunlight, and minerals.

    Biotic factors are living or once-living organisms in the ecosystem. These are obtained from the biosphere and are capable of reproduction. Examples of biotic factors are animals, birds, plants, fungi, and other similar organisms.

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  37. Explain the purpose of the Skeletal System.

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    You have a skeleton inside of your body (endoskeleton) made up of bones. Insects and crustaceans have skeletal systems on the outside or their bodies (exoskeletons) that are made of hard plates.

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    Protection and support are the two big reasons that organisms have skeletal systems. In your body, the skeleton works very closely with the muscular system to help you move. Without the bones of your skeleton, you would be a blob of water-filled tissues.

    The bones create a framework to which your muscles and organs can connect. Your skeleton also plays a role in protection, especially in your head. The bones of your skull protect your all-important brain. Your ribs protect most of your internal organs from impact as well.
  38. What are Nonvascular and Vascular Plants?
    • Plants are placed into two simple kingdom subsections: nonvascular and vascular plants. The big distinction between the two groups is that vascular plants have vascular tissues: tissues that conduct
    • water (upward) and dissolved food (downward) in the plant body.
    • The vascular tissues include xylem (moves water and minerals upward) and phloem (moves dissolved food downward).

    Nonvascular plants lack these tubes.  They must be small and thin so that each cell can acquire its needed materials via passive transport from the plant’s surface or from other cells within the plant that are located near the surface.

    • Regardless of whether a plant is vascular or nonvascular, it has structures that anchor it into the soil, provide physical support for its photosynthetic structures, and specialize in performing
    • photosynthesis.

    The difference is that in nonvascular plants these structures are called root-like, stem-like and leaflike because they lack vascular tissues. True roots, stems and leaves are those body structures that contain vascular tissues.

    • In the Angiosperm classification group (flowering plants), we classify the members of the group into
    • one or another of two categories (monocots or dicots) based upon the physical arrangement of the vascular tissues in their roots, stems and leaves.

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  39. Explain Roots, Stems and Leaves
    Roots are important organs in all vascular plants. Most vascular plants have two types of roots: primary roots that grow downward and secondary roots that branch out to the side.

    Together, all the roots of a plant make up a root system.  There are two basic types of root systems in plants: taproot systems and fibrous root systems.

    Taproot systems feature a single, thick primary root, called the taproot, with smaller secondary roots growing out from the sides. The taproot may penetrate as many as 60 meters (almost 200 feet) below the ground surface. It can plumb very deep water sources and store a lot of food to help the plant survive drought and other environmental extremes. The taproot also anchors the plant very securely in the ground.

    Fibrous root systems have many small branching roots, called fibrous roots, but no large primary root. The huge number of threadlike roots increases the surface area for absorption of water and minerals, but fibrous roots anchor the plant less securely.

    In vascular plants, stems are the organs that hold plants upright so they can get the sunlight and air they need. Stems also bear leaves, flowers, cones, and secondary stems. These structures grow at points called nodes (shown in Figure below). At each node, there is a bud of meristem tissue that can divide and specialize to form a particular structure.

    The leaves may be considered as the most important life-giving part of the plant body. The carbohydrate that is produced in the leaves in the process of photosynthesis sustains animal life, both directly and indirectly. This organic compound contains the energy which the plant obtains from the sun, the same energy that powers animal and human life. Likewise, the oxygen that plant leaves give off is essential to the continuing existence of animals and other aerobic organisms. An important feature of leaves is the presence of stomataor stomates (sing. stoma). Each stoma consists of a tiny pore surrounded by two specialized, sausage-shaped epidermal cells called guard cells. These tiny pores open and close to regulate the passage of gases and water to and from the leaves. Stomata are located mostly on the undersides of leaves, but they are also present on the epidermis of other plant organs such as the stems, flowers and fruit.

    Functions of leaves are Photosynthesis, Transpiration (water-loss through leaves), Food Storage and Floral Induction (The plant leaves produce a flower-inducing hormone called Florigen to the buds).  

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Card Set:
Science Multi-Subject Subtest
2016-02-03 16:31:36

General Curriculum Multi-Subject Subtest
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