# Math

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1. Define Mean, Median and Mode
The quantities of Mean, Median and Mode are referred to as measures of central tendency.  They can each give a picture of what a whole set of data looks like with just a single number.

The Mean, Arithmetic Mean, or Average, of a data set calculated by summing up all the values in the set and dividing that sum by the number of values.  If the data set has 6 numbers and the sum of those 6 numbers is 30, then 30/6=5.

The Median is the Middle Value of a data set.  It can be found by putting the data set in order, and locating the middle value.

The mode is the value that appears most frequently in the data set.  In the data set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5}, the mode would be 5.  Two modes is known as Bimodal and more than two modes is labeled distributions.  If no value appears than any other number, then there is no mode.
2. Explain the Pythagorean Theorem.
Named after the 6th Century Greek Mathematician Pythagoras, this theorem states that for the right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse (longest side of the triangle, always opposite the right angle), is equal to the sum of squares of the other two sides.

a²+b²=c²

This theorem can be used in reverse to show that when the square of one side of the triangle is equal to the sum of squares of the other two sides, the triangle must be a right triangle.

• Example:
• 3²+b²=5²
• 9+b²=25
• b²=25-9=16
• √ 16=4
3. Describe the following Quadrilaterals:  Trapezoid, Parallelogram, Rhombus, Rectangle, and Square
A Quadrilateral is a four sided Polygon.

• Trapezoid-  A Quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides (opposite one another);  in an isosceles trapezoid, the two non parallel sides have equal length and both pairs of non-opposite angles are congruent.

Parallelogram-  A Quadrilateral wit two pairs of parallel sides (opposite one another) and two pairs of congruent angles (opposite one another.)

• Rhombus-  A Parallelogram with 4 equal sides

Rectangle-  A Parallelogram with 4 congruent angles (right angles)

Square - Parallelogram with 4 equal sides and 4 congruent angles (right angles)
4. Compare and contrast Algorithms and Estimates
Algorithms result in the exact answer while an estimate gives an approximation.

Algorithms are systematic, problem-solving procedures used to find the solution to a mathematical computation in a finite number of steps.

Algorithms are used for recurring types of problems, thus saving mental time and energy because they provide a routine, unvaried method, like a standard set of instructions or a recipe.  A computer program could be considered an elaborate algorithm.

An estimate attempts only to find a value that is close to an exact answer.

A multi-digit multiplication problem such as 345*10+350*2=3500+700=4,200.  This estimate is close to the actual answer of 4,140.  Students can practice number sense by computing estimations.
 Author: Barbara40 ID: 314647 Card Set: Math Updated: 2016-01-25 03:51:42 Tags: Elementary Math Folders: Description: General Curriculum Test Show Answers: