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Name and describe the 6 Principles of the Constitution
Popular Sovereignty: The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government.
Federalism: A system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments.
Limited Government: Everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
Judicial Review: The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional.
Separation of Powers Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
Checks & Balances: A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
What is Phonemic Awareness?
It consists of being able to hear, identify and manipulate individual speech sounds or phonemes. The manipulation of speech sounds includes a process such as breaking words down to individual components; blending phonemes and words; and stretching them.
For children to read printed language they must develop phonemic awareness. This enables their understanding that words are composed of phonemes which are the smallest units of sound in a spoken word that affect it's meaning. For example, changing phoneme S to M changes the word sat to mat, which changes the word meanings.
Children demonstrate phonemic awareness by identifying words in a group that start with the same phoneme or sound, such as book, boy and bicycle. They can isolate and pronounce the initital or final phoneme in a word such as d or g in dog. They can blend phonemes to say a word.... d-o-g = dog and they can conversely segment words into phonemes. /d/, /o/, /g/
Summarize all the stages of Reading Development.
Stage 1: Awareness and Exploration of spoken and written language
Stage 2: Experimenting with Reading and Writing
Stage 3: Early Learning of Reading and Writing in a formal Education Setting.
Stage 4: Transitional reading and writing, typically during the second and third grades. During these grades they associate printed words and sentences with spoken language. Also, they recognize meanings of printed words and can read on their own. During this stage, they are starting to gain an understanding of written languages and reading comprehension improves. They typically can read a statement and comprehend it's main thesis. They can combine multiple ideas to understand the overall big picture. Parents and teachers can help children better comprehend books they read independently by suggesting they relate the story to their own lives.
Describe some specific procedures used in a model of whole group instruction in phonics, including reading and spelling during one week of unit for first grade classes
Lead 21 (Wright Group 2010-2913) model of phonics instruction
Teachers begin each day with a warm up activity in phonemic awareness. They provide students with sound spelling cards and introduce decodable readers to them in the first day. The introduce the weeks spelling list and give them a spelling pretest for that list on day one.
On the first and third days, students use sound spelling cards. Teachers show them example words and model phoneme blending. Students then practice blending, first in isolation and then within context using high frequency words.
On the second and fourth days, classes review the blending skill and then also practice isolated contextual blending again. They also build words and review word patterns using high frequency words and rereading decodable readers.
Students practice spelling on days two, three and four. Teachers introduce a new word study skill on day two and review the skill on day four. Teachers give the class the weeks spelling post test on day five.
Compare and Contrast Prose and Poetry
Prose is language as it is ordinarily spoken as opposed to verse or language with metric patterns. Prose is used for everyday communication, and is found in textbooks, memos, reports, articles, short stories and novels. Distinguishing characteristics of prose include:
It may have some sort of rhythm, but there is no formal arrangement.
The common unit of organization is the sentence.
It may include literary devices of repetition and balance. It must have more coherent relationships among sentences than a list would.
Poetry, or verse, is that manipulation of language with respect to meaning, meter, sound and rhythm. A line of poetry can be any length and may or may not rhyme. Related groups of lines are called stanzas, and may also be any length. Some poems are as short as a few lines, and some are as long as a book. Poetry is a more ancient form of literature than prose.
Explain why the 1920s were called the Decade of Optimism despite serious problems.
After WW1, Warren Harding ran for President on the slogan "return to normalcy" and concentrated on domestic affairs. The public felt optimistic, because life improved due to affordable automobiles from Henry Ford's Mass Production System, better roads, electric lights, airplanes, new communication systems, and voting rights for women (1920/19th Amendment).
Meantime, the Russian Revolution caused a Red Scare that strenthened the already strong Ku Klux Klan that controlled some states' politics. In 1925, the Scopes trial in Tennessee convicted a high school teacher for presenting Darwinian theories. The Teapot Dome Scandal rocked the Harding Administration. After Harding died in 1923, Calvin Coolidge became president. He was followed by Herbert Hoover, a strong proponent of capitalism under whom unregulated business led to the 1929 stock crash.
Explain the reason for the American Revolution
The English Colonies rebelled for the following reasons.
England was remote yet controlling. By 1775, few Americans had ever been to England. They considered themselves Americans, not English.
Heavy taxation such as the Sugar and Stamp Acts, which were created solely to create revenue for the crown, and business controls such as restricting trade of certain products to England only, were burdensome.
The colonies had no official representation in the English Parliament and wanted to govern themselves.
There were fears that Britain would block the Westward Expansion and Independent Enterprise.
Local government, established through elections by property holders, was already functioning.
- During the Seven Years War (aka French and Indian War) 1754-1763 Americans, including George Washington, served in the British Army, but were treated as inferiors.
- It was feared that the Anglican Church might try to expand the colonies and inhibit religious freedom.
Describe the Monroe Doctrine, Manifest Destiny and the Missouri Compromise.
The Monroe Doctrine- Conceived by President James Monroe in 1823, this foreign policy warned European powers to cease colonization of Central and South America or face military intervention by the United States. In return, the US would not meddle in the political affairs or standing colonies of Europe.
- The Missouri Compromise - In 1820, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states. The fear of a power imbalance between slave and free states and Missouri petitioned to become a slave state brought about this agreement. Maine was brought in as a free state; The Southern border of Missouri was set as the Northernmost line of any slave territory; and the western states could come in as free states, while Arkansas and Florida could be slave states.
- Manifest Destiny- This was a popular belief during the 1840s that it was the right and duty of the US to expand Westward to the Pacific. The idea became a slogan for the flood of settlers and expansionists power grabs.
List the states that formed the Confederacy and identify the following leaders of the War Between the States: Jefferson Davis, Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee and Ulysses S. Grant.
The states that seceded from the Union to form the Confederacy were: SC, NC, Virginia, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas and Tennessee. The salve holding states that were kept in the Union were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.
Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, a former US Senator and Cabinet Member, was the President of the Confederacy.
Abraham Lincoln of Illinois was the president of the US. His election triggered the secession of the South. He was assassinated shortly after winning a second term.
Robert E. Lee of VA was offered the position of commanding general of the Union Army, but declined because of loyalty to his home state. He led the Army of Northern VA and the Central Confederate Force, and is still considered a military mastermind.
Ulysses S. Grant of Ohio was appointed to the command of the Union Army until 1864, after a series of other commanders were unsuccessful. He received Lee's surrender at the Appomattox Court House in VA in April 1865 and went on to become President from 1869 to 1877.
List some of the domestic accomplishments of the Progressive Era, also known as the Age of Reform.
To the Progressives, promoting law and order meant cleaning up city governments to make them honest and efficient, bringing more Democracy and Humanity to state governments, and establishing a core of social worker to improve slum housing, health and education. Also during this time, the National Government strengthened or created the following regulatory agencies, services and acts to oversee business enterprise:
Passed in 1906, the Hepburn Act reinforced the Interstate Commerce Commission. In 1902, Roosevelt used the Justice Department and lawsuits to try to break monopolies and enforce the Sherman Anti Trust Act. The Clayton Anti Trust Act was added in 1914.
From 1898 to 1910, the Forest Service guided lumber companies in the conversation and more efficient use of woodland resources under the direction of Gifford Pinchot.
In 1906, the Pure food and Drug Act was passed to protect consumers from fraudulent labeling and adulteration of products.
In 1913, the Federal Reserve System was established to supervise banking and commerce. In 1914, the Fair Trade Commission was established to ensure fair competition