All glossary

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. (project) sponsor
    is the individual or group outside the project team that initiates the project by requesting for the service or product and beginning the project charter
  2. 100 percent rule
    means that a project’s work breakdown structure includes all aspects of work within the project--collected and quantified
  3. 80/20 rule
    is one that Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto popularized by his 1906 observation that 80 percent of the land in Italy was owned by 20 percent of the population at the time. It came to be known as the “Law of the Vital Few and Trivial Many,” a term coined by Dr. Joseph Juran when he realized that Pareto’s principle had far-reaching implications
  4. acceptance criteria
    are those criteria, including performance requirements and essential conditions, which must be met before project deliverables are accepted
  5. Accommodation
    involves one party attempts to meet the other’s needs at the expense of their own. It is a lose/win approach that can be seen as a good will gesture at times, however the accommodating party may be at risk of losing credibility and influence in the future. It is also known as Smoothing
  6. accuracy
    pertains to correctness of a value that is measured and considered to be close to a true value
  7. Acknowledge
    when a receiver signals their receipt of the message.
  8. Acquire Project Team
    is the process of ensuring resources are available for your project and determining the overall project team that will work to complete project activities. This process assists with the overall project team selection
  9. acquisition
    is a technique used when the organization or project team is unable to sources resources needed to complete a project
  10. activity attributes
    are those associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Includes activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions
  11. Activity List
    is a documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed
  12. Activity Resource Requirements
    are the types and quantities of resources required for each project activity work package are identified by the output of the Estimate Activity Resources process. Once in place, requirements can be aggregated for an overall view
  13. activity-on-node
    are diagrams illustrating activities that are identified as nodes with arrows directing work and depicting the logical progression of work package dependencies from left to right. Each node is assigned a specific code that is then used to correlate activity to the project schedule
  14. actual cost (AC)
    is the total cost incurred by completed work package. It needs to correspond to what was budgeted for in the PV in measured in the EV
  15. advertising
    is a technique whereby the buyer publishes requirements in a newspaper, trade publication or the internet. Municipalities or government entities traditionally publish or post pending contracts to ensure that the general public is made aware of an opportunity to bid
  16. affinity diagrams
    provide for illustrating ideas that are sorted into groups and analyzed accordingly
  17. Agile Methodologies
    method using the SCRUM process, which is a framework for developing new products.
  18. All For One & One For All
    this management style is likely found in microbial community project management. People are encouraged to work at their own pace and use individual creativity. Managers of Gen X and Y often fall into this category because of the way they define how work and projects balance within their lifestyle, a strong trait of Gen Y and X. Too little guidance or supervision, however, can deter or lengthen the project and its goals
  19. Alternative Analysis
    refers to the fact that there are multiple methods available to accomplish certain tasks
  20. analogous estimating
    is an estimating technique that uses the values of parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration or measures of scale such as size, weight, and complexity from a previous, similar activity as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future activity
  21. analytical techniques
    is a project management tool (EXAMPLE- Benefit Measurement Methods, Three-Point Estimates, etc.) encompassing various methods that are used to thoroughly assess different aspects of a project like stakeholder engagement levels
  22. Announcements
    is typically used to syndicate the achievement of a key milestone or the start or completion of a project. Can be formal or informal and can be both internal and external in nature.
  23. appraisal costs
    are also known as inspection costs and are typically incurred to identify defects before a projects’ product is productionalized
  24. artifacts
    are previous project documents that were archived for future reference. Documents include contracts, invoices, bills, project plans, meeting minutes, lessons learned, peer reviews and all organizational process assets pertaining to the project
  25. assessment information
    includes stakeholder requirements, expectations, influence, and degree of influence. This information is gained using analytical techniques, and is added to the stakeholder register
  26. attribute sampling
    is a statistical method used to test effectiveness of controls and determine the rate of conformance to project specifications
  27. audit trail
    provides details pertaining to work package consistency and completeness that is acceptable to the stakeholders
  28. Authoritative
    describes individuals who have a vision and are happy to share it with their team. They encourage and allow staff and team members to collaborate on project. An authoritative manager is project-knowledge-full and their teams notice and respect that knowledge. They recognize individual contributions and encourage strengths
  29. Automated Scheduling Tools
    are systemic tools that serve to expedite the overall process by generating start and completion dates based upon data provided
  30. backward pass method
    is used to determine late-start and late-finish dates again using previously determined dates, except this time it's the finishing date
  31. bar charts
    illustrate project activities relevant to start and end dates along with overall durations
  32. baseline
    means that the project manager and team have fully vetted all activities within the project plan
  33. bench strength
    refers to the overall competency and capability of the project manager and team
  34. bidder’s conference
    permits the project team to identify prospective sellers and confer with them details pertaining to the project. This conference or “walkthrough” ensures that all potential bidders receive the same information and clarity on the seller’s expectations
  35. bidders
    are typically more than one organization that can provide similar products and services that have a vested interest in entering into a contractual arrangement with the buyer
  36. Binomial Distribution
    is used with events or occurrences that have two outcomes
  37. bottom-up estimating
    examines costs the project activity level
  38. boundaries
    determine the start and end point of processes in addition to inputs and outputs
  39. brainstorming
    is an information-gathering technique that is a tool and technique of the Identify Risks process. It involves assembling in one place subject matter experts, team members, risk management team members, and anyone else who might benefit from the process and querying them on possible risk events
  40. breakeven analysis
    analyzes fixed costs and variable costs in regards to revenues anticipated, provides details in regard to project activities that determine where and when a project investment will break even
  41. budget
    is a planning, monitorization, and recording tool that includes estimates and final totals for a project and all its activities to ensure that costs are constrained
  42. budget at completion (BAC)
    is the sum of all the budgets established for all the work of the project, the work package, the control account, or the schedule activity. It's the total planned value for the work component or project. This figure is used in earned value analysis calculations
  43. budget forecast
    pertains to calculated estimate at completion that is indicated to Stakeholders
  44. build vs. buy vs. lease decision
    is a decision to make or develop a component of a project as compared to outright purchasing, licensing, leasing, or procuring the component can be thought of as a very simple decision to make
  45. Business Case
    is a brief description that illustrates the need and benefits of the project. It is often supported by financial analysis such as a Net Present Value and Break Even Analysis
  46. business requirements
    are provided by the sponsor and business, justify the need for the project and, at a more specific level, the project charter
  47. Certified Associates in Project Management (CAPM)
    are individuals who understand the processes and terminology of the PMBOK® Guide and has a fundamental knowledge of it; demonstrate knowledge of project management practices; and contribute to project teams as a Subject Matter Expert
  48. change control
    is the process of identifying, controlling and documenting changes to a control unit. It is typically executed by a change control board, which evaluates a formal change request and recommends to approve or reject it. This process also provides for tracking activities
  49. Change Control Board
    is a team of stakeholders established by the organization and given the authority via the configuration management system to review all change requests and approve them, delay them, or deny them.
  50. change control board (CCB)
    is a team of stakeholders established by the organization and given the authority via the configuration management system to review all change requests and approve them, delay them, or deny them
  51. change control documents
    are updated based on the results of any Integrated Change Control Process activity that takes place within the project
  52. change control procedures
    identify how standards, policies and documents will be modified and how changes will be approved, validated and implemented
  53. change log
    is the document that tracks changes through the change request process providing details on the change and how it was resolved
  54. change management plans
    are documentation describing how changes are tracked and addressed during the lifecycle of a project to effectively manage change and keep change from derailing a project
  55. change request
    are part of the formal written process of making a minor or major change to project areas. Without these documents, a change cannot be implemented to any part of the project
  56. change request form
    is a project artifact that identifies the change and incorporates all relevant information, including costs, impacts of the change and potential risks. The completed form is reviewed by a change control board. The board can either accept the change or reject it
  57. change request protocol
    is a process by which a project manager or a project team member initiates a change to the project by completing a change request form
  58. change requests
    are part of the formal written process of making a minor or major change to project areas. Without these documents, a change cannot be implemented to any part of the project
  59. Change Requests Form
    is a project artifact that identifies the change and incorporates all relevant information, including costs, impacts of the change and potential risks. The completed form is reviewed by a change control board. The board can either accept the change or reject it.
  60. Chi-square distribution
    is named after the Greek letter Chi, and is used for hypothesis testing and helps determine the distribution of a sample variance
  61. classic functional organization
    is a hierarchy where each employee has a direct superior and staff is typically grouped by specialty, such as Marketing, Accounting, HR, et cetera
  62. classification models
    include grids such as the power/interest grid and the power/influence grid, which are used to analyze stakeholder impact
  63. Close Procurement
    is a procurement process that takes place at the completion of each project procurement activities
  64. Close Project Group
    consists of processes that finalize activities across all process groups and formally brings the project to closure. When completed, project activities are detailed and documented
  65. Close Project or Phase
    is part of the Closing Process Group. The Close Project or Phase process provides for the administrative steps that officially bring a project to closure. Contractual sign-off, post project audits, product reviews and lessons learned all take place within this process. It finalizes activities across all the project management process groups and permits a formal closure of the project.
  66. Closing Phase
    covers all activities required to bring closure to the project. It includes product acceptance and transfer from project to product status. Deliverables within the Closing Phase include: Post implementation review; Delivery of product to client; Review of lessons learned; Administrative closure contracts; Updates to project artifacts
  67. Closing Process Group
    includes processes that are performed to complete project activities across all Process Groups and formally close the project
  68. closure documentation
    is a formal set of documents that indicates completion of the project. When closure documents are completed, responsibility and ownership for the project’s product is transferred to operations groups
  69. Coercive
    typically used by managers who work with junior teams use the coercive style. Some team members often view this as a dictator type style. Project managers who use this style should be careful only to use it when team members have inadequate knowledge, education, or drive to complete projects collaboratively
  70. Collaboration
    or Problem Solving; is based on reaching consensus, the parties in the conflict collaborate upon multiple solutions and agree on the one that satisfies the needs of both parties
  71. collaborative workshop data collection method
    involves participation from all stakeholders. With collaborative workshops, stakeholders not only provide data, but also help develop recommendations and conclusions
  72. Collect Requirements
    contributes to the documentation of stakeholder needs that will determine project objectives. This process includes reviewing the project charter and other documents that will become project artifacts
  73. Communication Breakdown
    Misinterpreting requirements or project delivery against mixed expectations, usually caused by ineffective listening, noise or a defect or disruption within the communication channel.
  74. Communication Requirements Analysis
    determines the needs relevant to communications and the project stakeholders.
  75. communications management plan
    outlines the communication expectations and needs and describes how they will be addressed throughout the entirety of the project. It is an output of the Plan Communication Management process
  76. Communications Management Processes
    deliver the right level of information, to the right groups or individuals, at the right times with the project’s lifecycle.
  77. Communiques
    these are typically brief internal statements that can be dispatched periodically to provide updates to project activities or to drive individuals and groups to areas where they can obtain additional information.
  78. Compromise
    allows both parties to gain and give up something. It can be seen as a lose-win/lose-win strategy. Is also known as Reconciliation
  79. compromising
    is where opposing sides partially relinquish positions for a Lose- Lose solution
  80. Conduct Procurements
    incorporate risk management to ensure that resources required for the project are readily available when needed
  81. Conduct Procurements process
    covers the acquisition of seller responses to proposals, selecting the service provider and developing a contract for the services required of the project
  82. configuration control
    is the process of managing controlled items, such as a project’s deliverables and its related documents, throughout the life cycle of the project. Configuration control is often confused with change control, but they are different processes
  83. configuration management
    provides oversight to the project and ensures changes applied to the project are executed in a controlled, process-driven manner with appropriate levels of quality assurance, testing and compliance to document project requirements. It includes applied controls that incorporate the maintenance of the control organization, change control standards, version control standards and oversight of the change control process. This formal discipline delivers policies, procedures, tools and methods used to identify products and determine baselines
  84. configuration management plan
    is usually a unique document that could also be a part of the project’s quality planning activities. Every configuration management plan should contain certain information. All in all, this plan becomes a part of and is a subsidiary to the project management plan
  85. configuration management systems
    are tools that provide oversight to configuration management activities
  86. conflict management
    is important to project deliverables as it serves to increase productivity and promote positive work relationships
  87. confronting
    is where opposing sides address concerns directly for a Win-Win solution
  88. contingency reserves
    set aside funds for unplanned activities
  89. contingency response strategy
    is a risk response that requires the development of scenarios or alternatives to an identified risk once the risk has been realized
  90. Contract Change Control System
    is typically a system that is managed outside the PMO and is administered by either a vendor management organization or a group that administers contracts for the organization, such as a legal department. This system incorporates paperwork and project artifacts relative to requirements defined by the project, it can include tracking capabilities, dispute resolution, processes and procedures and review and approval details required for authorizing changes to a contract
  91. contracts
    represent binding agreements that obligate a seller to provide products and services, which are of value to the buyer
  92. control account
    is a component used to manage costs at an activity level. Each control account receives a unique numbering sequence that ties the activities into an organization’s accounting system
  93. Control Charts
    are used to determine the stability of a process or predictable levels of performance. Control charts apply limits to specifications based upon requirements. They are also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts
  94. Control Communications Process
    is the process of monitoring and controlling communication activities throughout the project life cycle.
  95. Control Costs
    is the process of monitoring your project status to ensure that your budget is up to date that your project’s value is being delivered to meet expectations
  96. Control Procurement
    pertains to managing relationships, managing contract productivity and applying changes or corrections as needed
  97. Control Procurement processes
    incorporate risk management to ensure that resources required for the project are readily available when needed
  98. Control Procurements
    is the process of overseeing procurement relationships monitoring the performance of contractual activities and ensuring that changes and corrections to contract work take place as needed. This process ensures that the seller and buyer performance meet the requirements according to the terms and conditions of the agreement or contract
  99. Control Quality
    is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend changes to the project as needed
  100. Control Risk
    help determine whether or not to choose alternative strategies or the execution of a failover or fall back plan. In this process, the individual or group responsible for respective risks would provide periodic updates to the project team and manager in regard to risk plan effectiveness, unplanned impacts and any corrective actions taken as a result of realized risks
  101. Control Schedule
    monitors the status of project activities to provide progress updates and oversee changes to the schedule baseline. This process helps determine the status of current project schedule
  102. Control Scope
    ensures the intended deliverable is developed with the proper levels of quality, with no deviations or unplanned changes
  103. Control Stakeholder Engagement
    is the process that monitors and maintains stakeholder interactions. Furthermore, it is a process in the Project Stakeholder Management knowledge area
  104. corrective action
    is a documented process to help drive project activities back into alignment with the project's critical path and project management plan
  105. Cost
    Benefit Analysis- delivers details associated with quality activities and comparing the cost of quality to the components expected benefit
  106. cost accounting
    is a technique used by finance departments to calculate the cost of developing activities within a project
  107. cost aggregation
    is the process of applying work package costs and those details through control accounts to deliver a budget. It delivers cost estimates by aggregating work packages detailed within the work breakdown structure. Those cost estimates can then be aggregated up to a higher level within the work breakdown structure hierarchy and, ultimately, add up to the entire project
  108. cost assumption
    is when the project can be completed with existing resources and no additional raw materials other than existing inventories
  109. Cost Control
    aligns to reductions in cost of a process to the application of various methods
  110. cost management
    is one of the most integral components of the project management process. Cost management plan is an input to all other cost management processes because it commonly consists of the plans, guidance, and descriptions on how to best approach or perform the other cost management processes. Contents include: Units of measure, Levels of precision, Levels of accuracy, Organizational procedures and their locations. And a few of particular importance to the next process that we are going to discuss are: Control thresholds, Rules of performance measurement, and Reporting formats
  111. cost management plan
    is an input to all other cost management processes because it commonly consists of the plans, guidance, and descriptions on how to best approach or perform the other cost management processes. Contents include: Units of measure, Levels of precision, Levels of accuracy, Organizational procedures and their locations. And a few of particular importance to the next process that we are going to discuss are: Control thresholds, Rules of performance measurement, and Reporting formats
  112. cost of failures
    is known as the cost of poor quality
  113. Cost of Quality
    incorporates all costs incurred over the life of the product to prevent nonconformance to the project’s requirements
  114. cost performance baseline
    becomes the authorized time-phase budget at completion. This budget at completion is used to monitor cost performance over the life of the project
  115. cost performance index
    measures the value of work completed compared to the cost for the work. It measures the cost efficiency for the work that has been completed within the project
  116. cost performance indicator
    is a ratio of earned value over actual cost. The equation is: CPI = EV divided by AC
  117. cost plus fixed fee (CPFF)
    is a type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs, plus a fixed amount of profit
  118. Cost reimbursable contracts
    require payments to the seller for all costs incurred to complete work plus an additional fee that represents the sellers’ profit
  119. cost variance (CV)
    measures cost performance of a project. The formula for cost variance is: CV = EV - AC. The cost variance of a project is equal to the difference between the budget at completion and the actual dollars spend for the project. The cost variance illustrates the relationship of project performance to the expended budget
  120. cost-plus contract
    incorporates a total cost and an incentive if the vendor meets defined goals. With this type of contract, both parties are accountable for the project completion and funding
  121. Costs Incurred
    is the earned value of project activities aligned to budget and project milestones
  122. crashing a project
    incorporates spending money to accomplish a task within a shorter time span
  123. Create Work Breakdown Structure
    is an iterative process that employs the outputs of the Define Scope process to identify the tasks and work packages that will be included in the Work Breakdown Structure
  124. Critical Chain Method
    modifies the project schedule to accommodate limited resources. Here the project schedule network diagram uses duration estimates with dependencies and constraints as inputs
  125. critical path
    is the longest path through the project. It's made up of activities with zero float
  126. Critical Path Method (CPM)
    is a method that determines a single early and late start date and early and late finish date for each activity on the project to determine both the longest path of the project schedule network diagram and the finish date of the project
  127. Critical Path Methodology (CPM)
    is a method that determines a single early and late start date and early and late finish date for each activity on the project to determine both the longest path of the project schedule network diagram and the finish date of the project. It is also known as critical path method
  128. customer (client)
    refers to an individual or group of individuals directly benefiting from a project or product
  129. data flow diagram
    illustrates the process inputs and outputs that flow through all the processes within a Knowledge Area. It also illustrates inputs and outputs from the Direct and Manage Project Work process
  130. data flow diagram (DFD)
    is a graphical illustration of the "flow" of data through a system that models the processes within the system
  131. Decode
    translates the words or message sent back into thoughts and ideas.
  132. decompose
    relates to the process by which the project team breaks down a requirement to its lowest level
  133. decomposition
    is a technique that helps further define activities by identifying activities aligned within work packages
  134. defect repairs
    is the formal acceptance of a defect within the components of the project
  135. Define Activities
    pertains to all the necessary actions to be performed to generate work package deliverables
  136. Define Scope
    results in delivering detailed descriptions of the project’s work. It helps identify all the work that must be performed and only the work that must be performed to meet the requirements identified in the Collect Requirements process
  137. deliverables
    refer to the services or products produced when the project is completed for the project sponsor
  138. Delphi technique
    is used to gain consensus among a team of experts. Within this technique, experts participate anonymously and are asked a series of questions provided by a facilitator
  139. Democratic
    A project manager who does not lead or guide at all falls under this project management leadership style. Consider a football team without a coach or an art class lacking an instructor and you has the gist of this style. Because of the democracy atmosphere, all project team members are allowed input, which can often lengthen the time of the project. An upside to this style is employee morale
  140. Design of Experiments (DOE)
    is a statistical measure for identifying factors that can influence variables of a product or process being developed. It should be used within the Plan Quality process to determine the number and types of tests and their impact on the cost of quality
  141. Determine Budget
    is a process of aggregating the estimated costs of project activities that drive to a baseline within the project where costs are attributed
  142. Develop Project Charter
    is aligned to the Initiating Process Group. The project charter, which provides the basis for conceptualizing a project, is developed during this process. The charter documents the client’s perspective and the initial “ask” of the project. The “ask” relates to activities the project group will analyze and develop that will lead to the final product
  143. Develop Project Management Plan
    is aligned to the Planning Process Group. The project management plan and subsidiary plans will begin to develop within the planning phase and evolve over time. The project plan is a living document that will be reviewed and revised as the project moves from initiation to completion
  144. Develop Project Team
    takes the Human Resource management plan along with Project Staff Assignments and Resources Calendar’s as inputs to help build, motivate, inspire and lead the project team
  145. Direct and Manage Project Work
    is part of the Executing Process Group. It provides guidance that fulfills the requirements set forth by the sponsor. This process can be conducted by the project manager alone, may be delegated by the project manager or it may be a team effort
  146. directed brainstorming
    is a variation of electronic brainstorming. It can be done manually or electronically. Each participant is given a form and asked specific brainstorm questions. Then all of the forms are randomly swapped among the participants
  147. distribution (Student’s t)
    is used to estimate a degree of confidence when the variance of a population is not known and the sample size is not large
  148. earned value
    is a measurement of the project's progress to date or the value of the work completed to date
  149. earned value (EV)
    equates to the value of work performed in terms of the budget assigned to that work. It has to be related to the planned value baseline, and it cannot be greater than the planned value
  150. earned value management
    is the most widely used method to measure a project performance. It takes into consideration project scope costs and schedule helps the project manager assess the project’s progress
  151. earned value performance
    compares baseline to actual scheduling costs performance
  152. electronic brainstorming
    is a computerized version of brainstorming, where ideas are shared over a network and entered independently
  153. Encode
    translates thoughts and ideas into a language that the sender trusts to be understood by both the sender and receiver.
  154. enhance
    is a response to a positive risk, or opportunity, where the aim is to gain an advantage or opportunity by increasing the size or scale
  155. Enterprise Environmental Factors
    are internal or external factors based on an organization’s culture that can impact, negatively or positively, project management options, such as industry or regulatory standards, organizational culture or structure and global trends or known practices.
  156. Entity Relationship Diagrams (ER model)
    is used to describe database activities. It typically illustrates a relational database where data is presented in tables. It is also spelt Entity-Relationship Diagrams
  157. Estimate Activity Durations
    is the length of time estimated for an activity in conjunction with resource estimates so that a comprehensive view of what it would take and how long it will take to deliver the components of a project is available
  158. Estimate Activity Resources process
    helps determine resource requirements. Estimating resources may take place in the form of cost or time
  159. estimate at completion (EAC)
    is an earned value analysis technique that forecasts the expected total cost of a work component, the schedule activity, or the project at its completion
  160. Estimate Cost
    is the process of developing approximations for monetary resources required to complete project activities. Depending upon the project size, cost estimating may be coincidental to budgeting; this is especially true of projects that are smaller in scope
  161. estimate to completion (ETC)
    is an earned value analysis technique that determines the additional expected costs to complete the schedule activity, WBS component, or control account (or project). This is typically calculated in a bottom-up manner
  162. Executing Process Group
    encompasses processes that develop and complete the work defined in the project management plan.
  163. Execution Phase
    initiates the development of planned activities. Processes and procedures identified within the project management knowledge areas promote an iterative approach in delivering the details determined by the project Work Breakdown Structure, W-B-S Dictionary, Project Schedule, Project Management Plan and all subsidiary plans, while incorporating quality into the development process. The Execution phase takes design information and permits the development team to execute against criteria to build or procure a solution.
  164. Execution Process Group
    ensures resources are developing work with the proper levels of quality anticipated to meet project specifications
  165. Executive Updates
    planned and scheduled communication events that occur on a recurring basis, typically monthly and at monthly intervals such as quarterly and annually.
  166. Expected Monetary Value Analysis
    is a statistical concept that calculates the average outcome when future activities include scenarios that may or may not happen
  167. expert judgment
    is knowledge functioning as a project management tool that aids the project manager and project team by providing necessary details and skills on different subject matters
  168. external failure costs
    include warranty activities, recalls, replacements, and the potential for liability in regard to issues that develop through the use of defective products. In addition to replacement costs and rework, legal fees and the company’s brand reputation can be directly impacted by poor quality
  169. external risks
    are probably the biggest risks that a project manager needs to take into consideration, simply because of the level of control the project manager and team may have. Contributors to this type of risk include regulatory issues, contractor concerns, union activities, and third-party stakeholder impacts
  170. external stakeholders
    is a type of stakeholder that is outside of the organization or group sponsoring the project
  171. Fact Finding
    investigations pertaining to build vs. buy decisions where the facts help determine the optimal approach for a project-based solution.
  172. FAN chart
    is a tool used to record stakeholder classification. The three classifications are For, Against, and Neutral
  173. fast-tracking
    refers to conducting project activities concurrently or overlapping activities in order to achieve the project’s goal
  174. feasibility assessments (FIT assessments)
    analyze the relative necessity of a project
  175. Feedback
    a response that the message is received, acknowledged, decoded, understood and a response turns the receiver into a sender.
  176. feeding buffers
    are placed at critical points in the chain of dependent tasks not on the critical chain, but that feed into the critical chain
  177. Finish-To-Finish
    the completion of a successor is dependent on the completion of prior activities
  178. Finish-To-Start
    is where the successor can only begin upon completion of prior activities. This is the most common relationship between activities
  179. finish-to-start precedence
    means that one activity must be completed before the next one can start. The arrows will illustrate predecessors and dependencies as work is driven from one work package to the next
  180. fishbone diagram
    is named for its shape, which illustrates activities in a fishbone format-as if you were to look at a side view of the skeleton of a fish. It helps determine the root cause of problems.
  181. fixed price contract
    is where the price of the deliverable does not change regardless of the activities that take place during the contract delivery time frame. This contract typically favors the buyer
  182. fixed price with adjustments contract
    involves a fixed price that is set, but cost adjustments may be made upon completion of a project phase or a specific event. This contract can benefit both the client and the contractor
  183. Fixed-Price contracts
    set a fixed total price for a defined product or service. These contracts typically benefit the buyer because the overall risks relevant to project costs are assumed by the seller
  184. fixed-price plus incentive contract
    is a type of contract that sets a specific, firm price for the goods or services rendered (like the fixed-price contract) and includes an extra incentive for exceeding agreed-upon performance criteria
  185. float
    refers to the degree of flexibility
  186. Flow Charts
    also known as process maps, display the sequence of steps and illustrate possibilities that exist for a process that transforms inputs into outputs. They show activities, decision points, branching, parallel paths and the overall order of a process by detailing operational procedures. They serve to provide understanding and assist in the estimation of the cost of quality in a process
  187. flowchart
    is diagram that represents a process. It illustrates steps as boxes that indicate the activity the step is intended to deliver
  188. Flowcharting
    provides a graphical representation of processes illustrating showing relationships between process steps
  189. focus groups
    bring together stakeholders that have been identified as subject matter experts. They are moderated and designed for a group consensus, as opposed to one-on-one activities, such as interviews. Focus groups are good for acquiring data relevant to cross-functional processes that can be driven with a degree of impartiality.
  190. Force
    or Direct; emphasizes a position at the expense of other positions
  191. force field analysis
    serves to identify, by use of diagrams, the forces in place that are both for and against change relative to a project
  192. force majeure
    equates to risks that are totally beyond the control of the project manager and team. Examples include work stoppages, natural calamities, economic imbalances or collapse
  193. forcing
    is when there is a Win-Lose solution
  194. forecasting
    permits a project manager to gain insight on how the project may progress. A Project manager can develop a forecast that illustrates the EAC, but due to the project performance and estimate activity, EAC may differ from the budget at completion
  195. forecasts
    helps ensure that estimates and projections are aligned to actual activities performed
  196. Formal Communications Processes
    include reports, meeting minutes, executive updates and client briefings.
  197. forming
    is where the team meets and learns about the project and their roles relative to the project. At this point the team is in the formative stages and still view objectives independently
  198. forward pass method
    calculates the early start and finish dates by using a predetermined start date
  199. free float
    describes the amount of time from the completion of a scheduled activity to the point when the next scheduled activity is to start
  200. functional organizations
    are a type of organization that typically has a hierarchy-based structure where it is clear and apparent as far as reporting and supervision is concerned
  201. functional requirements
    provide specific details about how the product of the project will work. Based on these requirements, activities will be identified for development to complete a work package that will meet the needs of the project
  202. funding limit reconciliation
    pertains to the availability of funding for the project based upon constraints
  203. grade
    is considered to be a category assigned for products and services that have the same functional use but can have different characteristics
  204. group creativity techniques
    are activities organized to develop project requirements
  205. histograms
    are simple bar charts that illustrate groups of data. They are used to illustrate differentiating frequencies within a process that can identify trends for analysis and recommendations for process improvements
  206. Historical Information
    is knowledge base information such as lessons learned, project records and all related documentation and appendices
  207. historical relationships
    are most typically aligned to parametric and analogous estimates, involve using project parameters to develop models that protect project costs
  208. human resource management plan
    provides guidance relative to defining, staffing, managing and ultimately releasing project resources. Because this is a subsidiary plan, it also serves the develop project management plan process. The human resource management plan includes: Roles and responsibilities that detail the function assigned or assumed; the level of authority and autonomy that the project manager and team is expected to work by; the degree of responsibility for assigned duties and tasks allocate to team members and the skills and competencies required to complete assigned activities
  209. Human Resource Plan
    helps detail risks associated with resource availability and their aptitude in regard to project deliverables
  210. Human Resources knowledge area
    drives processes to develop a plan for the required people with the necessary capabilities and expertise to apply to project deliverables. The H-R plan is developed in conjunction with the overall project plan within the Planning process group. Acquiring the project team, developing the team and managing the project team take place throughout the execution process group activities
  211. identification information
    is used to create the stakeholder register and includes details such as the title or name of the stakeholder, their position within an organization, role in the project, program, and / or portfolio, location and other geographical data, reporting relationships, contact information, and other relevant data
  212. Identify Risks
    has to do with determining which risks may have an impact on a project and what may trigger that risk
  213. Identify Stakeholders
    is part of the Project Stakeholder Management knowledge area. It is the process of determining the project’s stakeholders by applying expert judgment, stakeholder analysis, and meetings
  214. impact
    estimates the severity and magnitude of a potential gain or loss
  215. independent estimates
    are an approach to selecting sellers. An independent estimator, from outside the organization is commissioned to provide a benchmark that can be used to compare proposals submitted by sellers
  216. influence
    is one of the factors measure in the Power/Influence grid that describes and categorizes a project stakeholder
  217. Influence-Impact Grid
    groups stakeholders by their degree of involvement or influence in a project and their ability to impact changes to the project’s execution or impact.
  218. Informal Communications Processes
    encompass e-mail and ad-hoc discussions to ensure all parties of interest stay synchronized.
  219. Initiating Process Group
    defines a new project or a new phase of an existing project and provide authorization to start the new project or phase
  220. Initiation Phase
    defines the parameters or boundaries of the project. It validates the need for the project and promotes artifacts such as the Project Statement of Work and Project Charter
  221. inputs
    continue project progression as tools and techniques are applied to these items, products, or mechanisms to produce process outputs and the final product
  222. inspection
    is the deliverables-review process that allows for verification. It is also referred to as reviews, product reviews, audits, or walkthroughs
  223. Integrate Change Control process
    begins when a change is necessary. It is involved in resolving risks as they surface
  224. Integration Knowledge Area
    is integral to the project management process because it brings all aspects of the project together in a manner that engages the sponsor, the project manager, the project team and all the respective stakeholders. It has processes that span the project from beginning to end.
  225. Interactive Communications
    When multiple parties engage in the multidirectional exchange of information, such as a conference call, instant messaging or video conferencing.
  226. internal failure costs
    result from defects being identified prior to delivery to the client or customer. In scope for internal failure costs are rejected products, remnants, rework defective units, and scrap, all of which generate additional downtime and costs for remanufacturing
  227. Internal Stakeholders
    are members of the project team, individuals or groups within a firm that have a vested interest in the project delivered, such as project sponsors or a senior manager.
  228. International Organization for Standardization
    oversee accreditation and certification of companies that comply with their process standards
  229. Issue Log
    is a list of realized risks. Once a risk becomes apparent and has an impact, it escalates to an issue, whereby an individual, or team, takes responsibility to address and resolve the issue
  230. issues
    within projects are the products of escalated risks
  231. iterative process
    is the repetition of a series of tasks that enables project managers to build upon previous project processes and arrive at a decision concerning the project’s progress
  232. joint application development session (JAD)
    is a process originating from IBM to help application developers arrive at consensus in regard to project requirements. The benefit of a JAD session is that it drives the group, based upon expert judgment, facilitated by a subject matter expert
  233. Kepner Tregoe Matrix
    is a root cause analysis decision-making method. It is a step-by-step approach used to address an issue and analyze potential risks by applying critical thinking to organize and prioritize information that can then be evaluated
  234. Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
    are metrics of work leading to a goal or objective.
  235. key stakeholders
    are individuals or a group whose decisions and actions will directly impact the project.
  236. knowledge area
    defines a collection of information, skills, and techniques on a specific topic. The number of knowledge areas adjusts as PMI® sees fit
  237. knowledge areas
    define a collection of information, skills, and techniques on a specific topic. The number of knowledge areas adjusts as PMI® sees fit
  238. knowledge base
    is a repository of information. In project management, they are used to store details and documents like lessons learned
  239. knowledge bases
    are a repository of information. In project management, they are used to store details and documents like lessons learned
  240. Knowledge Transfer
    is communicating through training or mentoring.
  241. lag time (lags)
    permits a delay in successor activity
  242. large client risk
    is a risk that vendors can have if they deal holistically with a few large clients
  243. lead time (leads)
    permits an acceleration of successor activity
  244. lessons learned
    is a document part of organizational process assets that describes all of the positive and negative lessons and knowledge gained throughout a project that could be helpful to know or apply in the future
  245. lifecycle
    focuses on the entire process of building project deliverables
  246. make vs. buy decisions
    is a decision to make or develop a component of a project as compared to outright purchasing, licensing, leasing, or procuring the component can be thought of as a very simple decision to make
  247. Manage Communications Process
    creates, collects, stores and distributes project details as per the directives of the communications management plan.
  248. Manage Project Team
    is a process in the Project Human Resource Management knowledge area that involves tracking team performance and making changes to enhance team performance
  249. Manage Project Team process
    is used to track team member performance, provide feedback, address issues and optimize overall project performance
  250. Manage Stakeholder Engagement
    is a process in the Project Stakeholder Management knowledge area that concentrates on the used to interact with stakeholders.
  251. management reserves
    are for unplanned changes to the project scope and, ultimately, costs. Management reserves are typically not a part of a project's cost baseline, and should be incorporated into the total project budget
  252. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    is a theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1954 that all human motivation is based on needs, and that these needs could be divided into five categories: physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem and self-actualization
  253. matrix organizations
    are an organization type that combine both functional and projectized characteristics. There are three types of matrix organizations. Weak matrix organizations lean more toward the functional organization, and the project manager role is more of a coordinator or facilitator; authority is more limited. Strong matrices lean more toward the projectized organization, and may have full-time project managers. They would also have levels of authority comparable to that of a projectized organization. The balanced matrix organization may appreciate the need for project management, but may not provide a project manager with a comprehensive degree of authority to manage or fund the initiative
  254. mean
    is average value
  255. median
    is the midpoint between the lowest and highest value of a data set
  256. Meeting Minutes
    refers to an internal communications tool used to share and collaborate within the project team and executive management.
  257. meetings
    are used as a tool to bring people together to discuss project progress and communicate other important details concerning the project
  258. milestone charts
    detail time-bound perspectives relevant to the overall productivity of the project. It is simply a graphical illustration of milestone activities
  259. Mind Mapping
    is an activity that involves individualized brainstorming that consolidates all individual findings into a map
  260. mode
    is the most frequently occurring value
  261. Monitor and Control Project Work
    involves monitoring project activities and collecting, measuring and distributing project performance details. It also involves analyzing and assessing project metrics that promote process improvements
  262. Monitoring and Controlling Process Group
    includes processes required to track progress and performance of a project; determine required changes to the project plan and integrate those changes into the project
  263. Monte Carlo analysis
    is based on “hedging your bets” based on odds and probability
  264. Motivation-Hygiene theory
    indicates there are certain factors in the workplace that lead to job satisfaction while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. This theory distinguishes between Motivators such as challenging work, recognition and responsibility that provide satisfaction to workers arising from conditions of their job
  265. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
    is a tool that can be used to optimize the resource acquisition process where a weighted score is applied to criteria determined by the project team. With this technique, a rating tool is used to score potential team members. The criterion for the score is determined by the project team
  266. negotiation
    can take place between vendors and the project manager, between the project manager and the project management office, between the project manager and the sponsor, the project manager and stakeholders and also between the project manager and the functional managers that directly oversee resources that could be allocated to a project team. It can also take place between project managers as often is the time when one specific resource is needed by multiple projects within the same timeframe
  267. network diagram
    illustrates how the project team intends to deliver each work package that is part of the project plan
  268. network diagrams
    are used to illustrate connection points between work packages
  269. Newsletters
    are formatted forms of communications that are typically used for projects that have extended durations.
  270. Noise
    interference created by technology used to communicate or a general misunderstanding of the intended message; or individuals that speak different languages.
  271. Nominal Group Technique
    encourages participants to have equal say in participation, ideas are collected by a facilitator in an individual manner (say ideas submitted to an ‘idea box’ or collecting post-it notes, then the group discuses and ranks or votes on each idea
  272. non-functional requirements
    provide parameters of the product that detail how it works as compared to specifics that are required to build the product
  273. non-project-based organizations
    are organizations that do not use systemic project management tools and/or processes
  274. norming
    is where collaboration becomes more apparent and the project team becomes more acclimated with each other. Project productivity increases and the team engage in higher levels of trust and acceptance
  275. objective
    is the driving force behind goals. They encompass a series of goals, and provide direction and purpose
  276. organizational assets
    are an accumulation of tools, processes, and techniques that are retained by the business in order to standardize processes and practices
  277. organizational breakdown structure (OBS)
    relates the WBS elements to the organizational unit responsible for completing the work
  278. organizational chart
    illustrates how a vendor or third party may be engaged and the person that their services would be managed by
  279. organizational process assets
    are an accumulation of tools, processes, and techniques that are retained by the business in order to standardize processes and practices
  280. organizational process templates
    provide for change request forms that formally create a change request that requires approval
  281. organizational processes assets
    are an accumulation of tools, processes, and techniques that are retained by the business in order to standardize processes and practices
  282. organizational risk
    is illustrated by any impact that the organization can have on project activities. Things like funding a project, or prioritizing resources to meet the time-bound deliverables of the project
  283. organizational structure
    is an Enterprise Environmental Factor that can impact human resource availability and influence the manner by which projects are conducted. Organizational Structures range from the extremes of Functional to Projectized with a matrix of structures between the two extremes
  284. organizational theory
    provides details in regard to the manner in which people, teams and functional units within an organization interact
  285. outcome
    refers to the results of the project as in the project product, service, or good
  286. outputs
    refers to the set of deliverables for a specific process. They are created by applying tools and techniques to inputs that are specific to that process
  287. Pacesetter
    these leaders expect the highest standards from their teams and will often terminate the weak. Managers who utilize this style should expect a lot of stress within teams
  288. parametric estimates
    are defined by activity durations that are quantified by the quantity of work divided by the labor rate per hour of work
  289. parametric estimating
    also known as by the numbers. It refers to statistical relationships between historical data and other information that help calculate cost, budget, and duration estimates
  290. Pareto Charts
    incorporate the 80/20 rule that states 80 percent of problems come from 20 percent of the known causes. Pareto analysis also adds weights to the most frequently occurring activities
  291. payment systems
    serve to ensure that payments to the seller are approved and occur only after the buyer certifies that the work provided was completed to the degree of satisfaction that warrants payment
  292. Perform Integrated Change Control
    is the process of formally reviewing all change requests and managing approved changes into the project plan for development
  293. Perform Quality Assurance
    is the process of auditing quality requirements and the results obtained from quality control measurements that ensure standards and definitions are utilized
  294. Perform Risk Analysis
    is the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by combining and assessing the probability and impact of risks occurrence
  295. performance assessments
    can be formal or informal reviews that can be used to illustrate a project team’s level of effectiveness
  296. performance measurement baseline (PMB)
    is the total of the project’s planned values
  297. Performance Reporting
    provides work performance data and details supplied by sellers and compared to contract based requirements
  298. performance reviews
    compare cost performance over time, schedule or work packages, budget over and under runs and estimated funding to complete the project
  299. performing
    is where the project team is firing on all cylinders, or working effectively. By now the team is well organized and individuals are performing within their roles to meet project expectations
  300. Plan Cost Management
    is the process implemented to determine and update policies, approaches, procedures, plans, process flows, and other documentation
  301. Plan Human Resource Management
    is the process of identifying and detailing roles and responsibilities, skills and relationships within a project
  302. Plan Procurements
    is the process of detailing and documenting project requirements and decisions. The plan process also provides details relevant to the project team's approach to procurement activities, as well as identifying contract participants which would be buyers or sellers
  303. Plan Quality Management
    is the process of identifying quality requirements or standards for the project and product while providing documentation in regard to how the project will comply with quality standards
  304. Plan Risk Management
    defines the manner in which risk management activities will be undertaken throughout the project. It helps provide visualization of risks throughout the project and aligns those risks to the level of tolerance and appetite that the sponsor and stakeholders have identified
  305. Plan Scope Management
    is a process that existed in prior editions and was always done. It is the process of creating the plan on how you and your team should manage the scope activities of the project
  306. Plan Stakeholder Management
    is the planning process of stakeholder management in which the project stakeholder plan is created
  307. planned value (PV)
    is the budget assigned to a work package to be accomplished
  308. Planning Phase
    incorporates activities that acquire the resources to staff and develop work within the project constraints. Project plans, human resource requirements, infrastructure details and stakeholder register are artifacts developed within the Planning phase. The Planning phase helps the project team determine if the project deliverables will be built vs. bought
  309. Planning Process Group
    involves processes required to determine the scope of a project, decompose project objectives and determine how the project will progress via the project management plan
  310. PMBOK® guide
    is the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. Includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. Includes both published and unpublished materials
  311. PMI Risk Management Professional (PMIRMP)
    provides expertise in the specialized area of assessing and identifying project risks, along with plans to mitigate threats and capitalize on opportunities. These individuals are responsible for identifying project risks and preparing mitigation plans, as well as supporting project management and the team as a contributing member
  312. PMI Scheduling Professional (PMISP)
    provides expertise in the specialized area of developing and maintaining the project schedule. These individuals are responsible for creating and maintaining the project schedule and supporting project management and the team as a contributing member
  313. poisson distribution
    is used to determine the random occurrence of a project constraint such as a period of time or an event
  314. portfolio
    sits atop a corporate project management hierarchy. The portfolio consists of multiple programs that may have a common theme or area of concentration
  315. power interest grid
    can help with categorizing stakeholders. It can be made up of sections that represent: power and interest, which groups stakeholders based on authority and degree of concern for a project; power and influence, which groups stakeholders based on their level of authority; and active involvement and influence/impact, which groups stakeholders by their active involvement and their ability to effect change
  316. Power-Influence Grid
    is where the power component remains unchanged and interest is replaced with influence or involvement in a project.
  317. Power-Interest Grid
    can help with categorizing stakeholders. It can be made up of sections that represent: power and interest, which groups stakeholders based on authority and degree of concern for a project; power and influence, which groups stakeholders based on their level of authority; and active involvement and influence/impact, which groups stakeholders by their active involvement and their ability to effect change.
  318. pre-assignment
    is the process by which team members are chosen in advance. This is sometimes called “cherry picking” as the resources required more often than not have a specific relationship or level of expertise that the project manager deems to be necessary for project activities
  319. precedence diagram method (PDM)
    is a diagramming method that places activities on nodes, which connect to dependent activities using arrows. One type of precedence diagram are activity on node diagrams
  320. precedence diagramming method (PDM)
    is a technique used to graphically represent scheduled activities. It places activities on nodes, which connect to dependent activities using arrows. One type of precedence diagram are activity on node diagrams
  321. precision
    pertains to consistency that the value of repeated measurements remains the same or close to the same
  322. Press Releases
    are external in nature and intended to communicate positive information pertaining to the project and the firm developing it.
  323. prevention
    works to keep errors out of the processes used to develop a product
  324. Preventive Action
    is a documented process that will provide direction and guide resources to prevent a deliverable from going off track or not conforming to project requirements
  325. preventive actions
    are a documented process that will provide direction and guide resources to prevent a deliverable from going off track or not conforming to project requirements
  326. probability
    measures the likelihood that an opportunity or threat identified in the risk register will occur and is expressed as either a numerical value or a ranking which is traditionally High, Moderate, or Low
  327. probability and impact matrix
    identifies and helps prioritize risks for quantitative analysis and response planning
  328. probing assumptions
    draws out biases beliefs used to support an argument
  329. process
    in terms of the PMBOK® refers to inter-related actions and activities that are grouped together to accomplish a specific service or product and drive project work
  330. Process Asset Library (PAL)
    is the location where templates, forms, and historical project information is retained
  331. Process Configurations
    are illustrations of project processes. These configurations provide visualization of the process that helps the team analyze process areas for enhancements or improvements
  332. process groups
    are units used to logically collect project processes
  333. Process Improvement Plan
    details required steps that are used to analyze processes specifically aimed at improvement opportunities. Thresholds, boundaries, configuration, and metrics are all in scope for improvement opportunities
  334. process quality
    relates to the project management processes aligned to deliver the product of the project
  335. processes
    in terms of the PMBOK® refer to inter-related actions and activities that are grouped together to accomplish a specific service or product and drive project work
  336. procurement agreements
    contain conditions and other buyer specific details in regard to seller requirements
  337. procurement documents
    are typically organizational process assets that pertain to contractual relationships and procedures required by the organization for procurement work. They aid in forming the purchaser-supplier relationships defining the requirements or acceptable criteria for the product or service
  338. Procurement knowledge area
    focuses on the purchasing and availability of quality raw materials. This raw material is used in the production of finished products. It is responsible for negotiating the quality supplies at acceptable rates
  339. procurement management plan
    is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan that is used to describe how the project team will obtain goods and services from vendors or service providers that are typically outside of the organization. It describes how the procurement process will be managed relevant to project deliverables from project initiation through to closure
  340. procurement negotiations
    are used to clarify terms and conditions within a contractor agreement
  341. procurement performance reviews
    are structured reviews that that the sellers performance into consideration as they deliver project work as it pertains to the scope and quality requirements
  342. product
    is the developed product, service, or good that results from the launching and successful completion of a project
  343. product analysis
    is analysis performed on line item requirements of a project allows you to develop specific requirements based upon findings
  344. product quality
    refers to the quality inherent to all activities and/or deliverables that create the product of the project
  345. Product Reviews
    take place at the work package level to ensure that components of the project’s product are capable of being delivered to meet project requirements
  346. Product Scope
    is a more focused concept that is centered on the features and requirements of the product delivered via the project
  347. product walkthrough
    permits the project management team to present deliverables so the sponsor and stakeholders can see how the project’s product is developing. They help identify areas where requirements may have been missed prior to the project being closed
  348. product-oriented processes
    create the project’s product. They are defined by the project life cycle
  349. professional development units (PDUs)
    are credits that contribute to the educational requirements for project manager certification
  350. program
    incorporates multiple projects that are similar in nature, allowing the firm to oversee project-based activities that include common resources, budget and direction
  351. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
    uses expected value—or weighted average—of critical path tasks to determine project duration by establishing three estimates: most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic. The formula for PERT is optimistic + pessimistic + (4 * most likely) / 6. PERT is used when activity duration estimates are highly uncertain
  352. Program Management Office (PMO)
    oversees multiple programs that capitalize on similar resources and have projects funded from specific areas
  353. Program Management Professionals (PgMP)
    certified individuals that are responsible for achieving an organizational objective by overseeing a program that consists of multiple projects. In addition, these people are able to define and initiate projects and assign project managers to manage cost, schedule and performance
  354. Progress Reporting
    aligns deliverable status to predetermined milestones developed in conjunction with the project baseline
  355. progressive elaboration
    is the accumulation of knowledge over time that is applied repeatedly, which results in the individual gaining different levels of experience
  356. project
    is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end, undertaking to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value
  357. Project Artifacts
    are previous project documents that were archived for future reference. Documents include contracts, invoices, bills, project plans, meeting minutes, lessons learned, peer reviews and all organizational process assets pertaining to the project.
  358. project baseline
    incorporates plan start to finish date for each activity. This process typically occurs prior to the completion of the project management plan
  359. project calendars
    are constantly updated to reflect changing deliverables and manageable time frames. It is an excellent point of reference the project team can use to ensure that deliverables and expectations are met within the time constraints of a project
  360. Project Charter
    describes a project in the initial approach toward the project's product. Helps illustrate what needs to be accomplished and provides a preliminary approach on how the project will proceed
  361. Project Communication Management Plan
    is a subsidiary plan of the Project Management Plan that explains how communications will be structured, executed, monitored and controlled. Details within the communications management plan include the types of information in scope for communications; the format, language, frequency, content and details are all examples of details.
  362. Project Communications Management
    promotes effective communications to all stakeholders, project team participants, clients, vendors and the general public when necessary. There are three processes within the Communications knowledge area, where Stakeholders are identified so effective communications can take place with those that have a vested interest in the project
  363. Project Cost Management
    is comprised of the Plan Cost Management, Estimate Costs, Determine Budget, and Control Costs processes. Inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this knowledge area function together to ensure that the project stays under budget. It entails processes that break down requirements to the activity level, where control accounts can monitor expenditures
  364. project cost-benefit analysis
    is another tool that’s updated as the project progresses, based on analysis of the project’s cost benefit, which can help determine whether the project should continue
  365. project deliverables
    refer to the services or products produced when the project is completed for the project sponsor
  366. project funding requirements
    are derived from the cost baseline; it will include all project expenditures, plus ancillary liabilities
  367. Project Initiation processes
    is the first phase in the project life cycle. It starts the project. This is also when the project’s purpose, scope, and justification are defined
  368. Project Integration Management
    has processes that span the project and occur within each process group. Its processes begin within the Initiating process group
  369. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®)
    is the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. Includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. Includes both published and unpublished materials
  370. Project Management Body of Knowledge® (PMBOK®)
    is the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. Includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. Includes both published and unpublished materials.
  371. project management information systems (PMIS)
    is incorporated as part of the enterprise environmental input to several processes. It is an automated or manual system used to document the project management plan and subsidiary plans, to facilitate the feed- back process, and revise documents
  372. Project Management Institute® (PMI®)
    is a not-for-profit professional organization developed from a group of working project managers. Today its primary goal is to advance the practice, and profession of project management throughout the world
  373. Project Management Office (PMO)
    provides organizational focus for the management of projects within a performing organization using program and/or portfolio structures to manage project relationships
  374. Project Management Plan
    is the document detailing all aspects of a project including baselines that are referenced throughout the project’s lifecycle to keep the project on track
  375. project management processes
    drive work by categorizing efforts into knowledge areas. The processes within these knowledge areas encompass the tools and techniques used in project management
  376. Project Management Professional® (PMP®)
    is a credential offered by the Project Management Institute® for project managers. Designed to improve the success rate of projects in all areas of knowledge by applying a standardized and evolving set of project management principles. This certification is gained by taking an exam and having enough hours of project management experience
  377. project management risks
    impact the manner in which project activities are carried out and is more of a function of administering the project than developing components of the project
  378. project management team
    also known as the Core Team or the Executive leadership Team. Their role provides support within project activities such as funding the project, detailing the project’s size & scope, overseeing productivity & progress and managing and influencing project stakeholders
  379. project manager
    is the individual charged with managing a temporary endeavor from beginning to end who monitors project progress and ensures that project activities stay on task, under budget, and finishes on time
  380. project metrics
    can be used to optimize development activities and assess quality deliverables at the activity level
  381. project net present value
    factors discount rates into project deliverables over time, help the project team determine the value of a project based upon the cost of money today
  382. Project Performance Appraisals
    are used to clarify roles and responsibilities as well as keep the project teams on track relative to project deliverables
  383. Project Procurement Management
    incorporates processes required to acquire goods and services or results provided by a third party. Within procurement management the organization driving the project may be either the buyer or the seller of goods and services. Project procurement management incorporates contract management and change control activities needed for the proper administration of contracts and purchase orders authorized by the project team
  384. Project Quality Assessment
    ensures that the processes and steps required to deliver the project are adhered to with appropriate levels of documentation, and within the constraints of the project. They are conducted in a more formalize manner as an activity that is undertaken by a party outside of the project management team
  385. Project Quality Management
    incorporates risk activities to ensure that quality assurance and quality planning are delivering the level of quality expected. Qualitative and quantitative analysis helps identify risk and determine whether corrective or preventive measures are necessary
  386. Project Risk Log
    is another method used to help determine the level of risk and manage it. The log can be a spreadsheet based template that aligns to the project schedule and details activities within each work package
  387. Project Risk Management
    is the process of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning and controlling risks within a project
  388. Project Risk Management Knowledge Area
    encompasses all the processes involved in conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning and controlling risks within a project
  389. Project Risk Management Plan
    is part of the overall Project Management Plan, provides guidance, sets the tone for risk-related activities, and informs stakeholders and project team members. This plan ensures the degree, type and visibility are in line with organizational expectations
  390. project risk register
    serves to identify risks, their root cause(s), potential responses, individuals or groups that will own the risk, triggers that help determine a risk event, the relative ranking of the risk itself in alignment with all other risks identified; as well as near-term risk responses, risks that need additional analysis or rework, trends based upon qualitative analysis applied and a watch list that the team can use during weekly project update meanings to ensure that kind risk events are managed appropriately
  391. project scope
    is the work required to deliver a product or service
  392. project scope baseline
    incorporates project assumptions into the scope of a project. It contributes to the development of the project Work Breakdown Structure which, in turn, can serve as an analytical tool to help determine risk at the summary, control account, and work package levels
  393. project scope document
    details all activities in-scope and makes note of activities out-of-scope for the project
  394. Project Scope Management
    details best practices, skills and processes required for project managers to properly manage scope details best practices, skills and processes required for project managers to properly manage scope
  395. Project Scope Statement
    is an important communications tool that provides all project participants with a shared and common understanding of the project’s deliverables and the work that will be performed to create those deliverables. It is a key project management document that provides the project team with guidance on the work to be performed during project execution. Also helps determine those activities deemed to be out of scope and not a part of the project
  396. Project Staff Assignments
    is a list of project team members that are given tasks by using the project’s roles and responsibilities to help understand the caliber of worker required to carry out specific tasks
  397. Project Stakeholder Management
    is the knowledge area including the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs involved in identifying stakeholders, planning stakeholder management, and managing and controlling stakeholder engagement.
  398. project stakeholders
    are identified individuals who have influence and impact in a project’s outcome. They can either be internal or external to an organization
  399. Project Statement of Work
    is incorporated to help support the development of the Project Charter. It helps to answer the Who, What, When, Where and Why-type questions of the project
  400. project team
    refers to a group of people brought together to work toward achieving a common goal to work on the project deliverables
  401. project template
    a set of predesigned formats and layouts applied to a document for a specific purpose in a the project
  402. Project Time Management
    is a knowledge area that takes into the consideration project constraints that pertain to time. It incorporates all the processes that are required to ensure the effective and timely completion of projects
  403. project-based organizations
    are those organizations that operate mostly to drive project activities
  404. projectized organizations
    are organizations that have departments that report directly to the project manager and provide support services to the various projects. They drive activities as if they are projects. In this type of organizational structure most of the resources are involved in project work and project managers exercise autonomy and authority over project decisions
  405. Pull Communication
    is extracted single source data that is pulled-down from a common repository and contains project details.
  406. Push Communication
    is a summary of a project meeting that is transcribed into a document, attached to an email and pushed out to a distribution list, which is comprised of the project team and stakeholders.
  407. Qualitative Risk Analysis
    is the process of prioritizing risks for further analysis and action. It combines risks and their probability of occurrences and ranks them accordingly
  408. quality
    correlates to the degree to which characteristics of a project meet requirements
  409. quality assumptions
    determines the proper level of quality and the risk inherent to project deliverables requires assumptions that pertain to the degree of quality and the level of risk that the project stakeholders are willing to assume
  410. quality auditors
    is a certified individual responsible for ensuring the quality of project activities and outputs. They use the stands and principles of auditing to ensure quality
  411. quality audits
    are structured, independent reviews that help the project team align activities to meet client expectations, organizational policies and standards, regulatory requirements- if applicable and processes or procedures detailed within organizational process assets
  412. quality conformance
    is a target toward which project managers should drive project-related activities. Conformance indicates that the product of a project meets or exceeds design specifications and is free of defects that could impact the performance of the product
  413. quality control
    is concerned with meeting the quality requirements specified for each deliverable. It is an activity that is usually performed before verification, as the quality attributes of a deliverable will obviously affect its acceptance
  414. Quality Control Measurements
    provide details pertaining to the findings or results of performance metrics that were specified during quality planning activities. They are the tools, or analytical measurements, used to access quality based upon analytical details or data
  415. Quality Control Measures
    are the results of quality control activities and required changes within the project to address quality risks and issues found
  416. quality cost
    correlates to project related costs incurred to prevent defects or those costs that may result due to defects
  417. quality management knowledge area
    incorporates risk activities to ensure that quality assurance and quality planning are delivering the level of quality expected. Qualitative and quantitative analysis helps identify risk and determine whether corrective or preventive measures are necessary
  418. Quality Management Plan
    will be used to help determine the risks associated with integrating quality within work packages, or at the activity level. First section client identifies Completeness and Correction Criteria, part 2 is Quality Assurance to create the deliverables, third, Quality Control to record and track activities.
  419. quality plan
    helps define requirements for quality and the approach that will be taken to achieve them. It is typically applied to ensure adherence throughout the life of the project
  420. quantitative risk analysis
    has results that may be based upon mathematical formulas, simulation methods and statistical analysis. This analysis type goes through the usual process practice of generating inputs and applying those inputs to tools and techniques to generate project artifacts or project document updates
  421. RACI diagram
    stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed. It can be used to detail what roles are associated to key team members
  422. RAG Status
    stands for red, amber, and green; based on the “traffic light” colors that correlate to a particular status of a project, i.e., projects with no issues that are meeting all constraints are typically identified with a green status.
  423. range
    is the span of values over which your data set occurs
  424. Rayleigh Distribution
    illustrates asymmetrically all positive outcomes. Outcomes typically cluster around a value identified to be a most likely outcome
  425. Recapping
    is summarizing pertinent details contributes to delivering the proper message to the right people at the right time.
  426. records management systems
    are used by project managers to provide oversight for artifacts and to manage contract and procurement documentation
  427. Requests for Change (RFCs)
    formal change requests that are instituted based upon findings and adjustments to requirements that took place throughout the prior processes
  428. requirements documentation
    describes how each requirement impacts the project
  429. Requirements Management Plan
    centers on the project’s requirements and how they are to be managed throughout the project lifecycle. The plan incorporates tools and activities the project team will utilize in driving the project toward completion
  430. requirements traceability matrix
    aids in helping the project team visualize developed versions of activities within a project
  431. reserve analysis
    addresses the project budget and serves to ensure that negative impacts to a project have ample funding to cover the risk. Can be established for both contingency reserves and management reserves within the project
  432. Resource assumptions
    pertain to having the right people, with the right level of expertise, at the right time
  433. Resource breakdown structure (RBS)
    is a hierarchical chart of resources that breaks down the work of the project according to the types of resources needed
  434. resource calendars
    are used to determine which resources, as part of the project team, are available to work on specific activities
  435. resource leveling
    is a technique applied after analyzing input information to ensure that project activities remain on target
  436. resource optimization techniques
    are used to optimize the distribution of work among resources
  437. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
    provides details that pertain to roles and responsibilities. It is a simple grid that may be developed within a spreadsheet, or there may be an organizational process asset template available for the project manager to use
  438. RFI
    is a request for information, bids or tender offers
  439. RFP
    is a request for proposal
  440. RFQ
    is a request for quotation
  441. risk
    refers to the potential external events that will negatively impact a project’s progress
  442. risk acceptance
    typically takes place when both the probability and impact is identified as low. Here the project team acknowledges the risks and determines that no action is required to be taken. It is a response to positive and negative risks
  443. risk appetite
    is the degree of uncertainty an entity is willing to take in anticipation of a reward
  444. risk audits
    are used to detail and document effectiveness of root cause analysis, risk identification based upon assumptions and the overall risk response plan
  445. risk avoidance
    is a strategy used to deal with negative risk, where the project team works to eliminate a threat to a project where the potential impact will be negative. Involves changing a project deliverable to eliminate a threat or high-probability, high-impact risk. Examples include de-scoping an item from a project or applying a buy vs. build decision.
  446. risk breakdown structure (RBS)
    is a matrix that ties roles and responsibilities with the WBS elements to ensure that each element has a resource assigned
  447. Risk Categories
    help the project team quantify and group risks that may be similar in nature
  448. Risk Category
    identifies the risk by area impacted- such as technology, organizational, project management, external
  449. risk data quality assessment
    evaluates the degree of relevance and applicability risk information gathered has to project deliverables
  450. risk log
    is another method used to help determine the level of risk and manage it. The log can be a spreadsheet based template that aligns to the project schedule and details activities within each work package
  451. risk logs
    are a method used to help determine the level of risk and manage it. The log can be a spreadsheet based template that aligns to the project schedule and details activities within each work package
  452. Risk Management Approach
    describes and summarizes how risk management activities will be applied to project artifacts, the type of analyses intended to be used, the group expected to perform the work and the timeframes relevant to planned activities
  453. risk management plan
    is part of the overall Project Management Plan, provides guidance, sets the tone for risk-related activities, and informs stakeholders and project team members. This plan ensures the degree, type and visibility are in line with organizational expectations
  454. risk mitigation
    involves the project team acting to reduce probability and or impact. Providing the project team has the ability to do so, they can manage activities to within acceptable levels or risk thresholds
  455. risk planning
    helps ensure that accurate cost estimates are applied to each activity within work packages, and that all activities are associated to work packages
  456. risk register
    helps the project team determine and allocate costs against risks identified while reviewing activities within the work breakdown structure
  457. Risk response
    is process occurs after quantitative risk analysis activities are complete when each risk response is based upon a thorough understanding of how it will address an impact the risk
  458. Risk Response Strategy
    provides details relevant to options available and thresholds required for consideration
  459. risk reviews
    permit the project team to ensure that no risk is overlooked relevant to timing improbability
  460. Risk Score or Exposure
    measures the overall threat of the risk. It combines the probability and the impact into a single number value
  461. risk threshold
    refers to measurements along the level of uncertainty or the level of impact at which a stakeholder may have a specific interest
  462. Risk tolerance
    is the degree, amount or volume of risk that an organization or individual will withstand
  463. risk transfer
    takes place when the project team shifts the impact of a threat to a third party that will assume ownership of the response. While this does not serve to eliminate the risk, it does transfer the responsibility for its management
  464. risk transference
    moves the risk to a third party that assumes ownership and responsibility for the risk
  465. risk urgency assessment
    is a prioritization technique predicated on time
  466. risks
    refer to the potential external events that will negatively impact a project’s progress
  467. Rolling Wave technique
    is a method that helps rive projects that have dissimilar levels of information
  468. Root cause analysis (RCA)
    is another information-gathering technique that permits the project team to identify multiple causes that correlate to risk and, through analysis, arrive at the single root cause
  469. rough order of magnitude
    is a framework to guide near-term activity through what will deliver a more specific estimate
  470. Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM)
    is a concept referring to estimation cycles. Additional estimating activities usually do not deliver additional benefits beyond the third iteration, so it may be cost prohibitive to attempt to fine-tune estimates beyond the third approach
  471. Run Charts
    plot data based on time to identify trends and cycles
  472. salience model
    is a type of stakeholder analysis that groups stakeholders by their ability to impose will, requirement for immediate attention, and the degree of appropriateness for their involvement in the project
  473. Scatter Diagrams
    are two-dimensional plots used to show the relationship between independent and dependent variable. They are used to determine direct or indirect relationships that can then be used to analyze process performance
  474. schedule
    can help identify risks as it details the amount of time required for and sequence of activities
  475. Schedule Baseline
    is developed from the schedule network analysis. The baseline is used to measure all future work activities
  476. Schedule Compression
    permits the project manager to compress the project schedule without impacting scope by addressing activities that are behind schedule to realign with the project’s critical path
  477. schedule compression techniques
    is where additional resources are used to shorten the duration of a project’s critical path, or the project’s critical path is shortened by running more activities in parallel, enable resources to be applied in a manner that helps drive project activities in alignment with the project’s constraints
  478. schedule data
    incorporates milestone scheduling activities, activity attributes, and project documentation covering all assumptions and constraints
  479. Schedule Management Plan
    is used to identify risks associated with project development, especially predecessors and successors, and how risk can impact their ability to meet a project’s critical path
  480. schedule performance index
    measures progress achieved compared to progress planned. It is used to forecast project completion estimates. SPI = EV divided by PV. The schedule performance index provides a measurement of the project work performed along the project’s critical path taken help determine whether project will complete ahead of schedule, behind schedule or on schedule
  481. schedule variance (SV)
    measures the project schedule performance will. The formula for schedule variance is: SV = EV - PV. The schedule variance can help illustrate when a project is falling behind its baseline schedule
  482. scope
    defines and details activities necessary to deliver a project to completion
  483. scope baseline
    incorporates project assumptions into the scope of a project. It contributes to the development of the project Work Breakdown Structure which, in turn, can serve as an analytical tool to help determine risk at the summary, control account, and work package levels
  484. scope creep
    is a phenomena that occurs when additional work gets incorporated in a project
  485. seller proposals
    provide the necessary details any feedback from the seller’s perspective that can determine feasibility and capabilities of a seller are relevant to the project needs
  486. Sender-receiver Models
    models that incorporate feedback loops, which generate interaction and participation opportunities.
  487. sensitivity analysis
    is used to determine risks with the highest potential to impact a project, also enables the project team to determine how variations to project objectives correlate with variations in different uncertainties
  488. Sequence Activities
    identifies and documents the relationship between work packages. All activities have connections to either predecessors or successors, with the exception of the first and last milestones
  489. serve analysis
    is a tool/technique of the Estimating Activity Durations process. It helps account for schedule uncertainties. A reserve or contingency reserve is typically 5 percent of a project’s budget, and is used at the project manager’s discretion to ensure project activities remain on track
  490. Seven Basic Tools of Quality
    is a set of graphical tools and techniques that address quality issues in manufacturing. As compared to operations research activities, these tools are considered to be basic because they require minimal formal training in statistics and can be used to solve the majority of quality-related issues
  491. showstopper
    is an issue or event during a project that requires a complete halt to future project activities until the issue is fully mitigated
  492. SIPOC
    is a tool used to identify and categorize the parts of a process as relating to either the suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, or customers
  493. smoothing
    is a technique used to address conflicts within a project. It is considered a No-solution technique because nothing is actually resolved
  494. Sole Source Risk
    is the risk of shutting down a supply chain due to a lack of alternatives. This type of risk can bring a project to a stop until the source concern is mitigated
  495. source selection criteria
    permits the project team to define what they believe is necessary of the seller in order to be considered a viable entity for contract work
  496. stages
    refer to a particular time during the project when specific activities are conducted
  497. stakeholder
    are identified individuals who have influence and impact in a project’s outcome. They can either be internal or external to an organization
  498. stakeholder analysis
    is a technique used in the Identify Stakeholder process that is used to gather and analyze information to determine who interests should be taken into account
  499. stakeholder classification
    is the information based on the sorting and labeling of the analyzed stakeholders that contributes details to the Stakeholder Registry
  500. Stakeholder Engagement Outputs
    activities permitting the project manager and team the ability to control and / or manage the impacts stakeholders may introduce.
  501. stakeholder management knowledge area
    is the knowledge area including the inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs involved in identifying stakeholders, planning stakeholder management, and managing and controlling stakeholder engagement
  502. stakeholder management plan
    is a document entailing the details and plans on how to effectively manage stakeholder engagement
  503. stakeholder register
    is a communication tool that a project manager can customize. Helps provide the answers up front in regard to engaging and coordinating efforts amongst stakeholders
  504. stakeholders
    are identified individuals who have influence and impact in a project’s outcome. They can either be internal or external to an organization
  505. standard deviation from the mean
    refers to how much each measurement deviates from the mean
  506. Start-To-Finish
    is where successor activities completion relies upon the start of prior activities. This is the least common relationship
  507. Start-To-Start
    is when the successor activity start relies upon the start of prior activities
  508. statement of work
    is incorporated to help support the development of the Project Charter. It helps to answer the Who, What, When, Where and Why-type questions of the project
  509. statements of work
    are developed by the vendors that provide explicit details that correlate to actions and interactions intended to be delivered throughout the project lifecycles
  510. Statistical Sampling
    provides the ability to choose part of the population in scope for inspection whereby sample frequencies and sizes are determined during the Plan Quality process
  511. storming
    is the next phase where project work begins sand the team addresses the project management approach, project decisions and overall work
  512. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis
    is a problem-solving technique that can be used in many situations, from strategic planning to reviewing a business proposition
  513. subject matter experts (SMEs)
    are individuals with knowledge on a specific topic or trade who provide details that can be used in expert judgment; it’s knowledge sharing
  514. swim lane diagram
    visualizes process flows in a manner that distinguishes responsibilities for sub-processes. They may be arranged either horizontally or vertically
  515. switchover risk
    pertains to the impact of time and costs in transitioning from one source to another
  516. team
    a group of people brought together to work toward achieving a common goal to work on the project deliverables
  517. Team Idea Mapping method
    works through association, improves collaboration, and increases the quantity of ideas. The process starts with one topic and each participant brainstorms individually. Once individual brainstorming is complete, all ideas are incorporated into one single idea map
  518. Team Leader
    combines a strong coaching trait with patience appears. They are experts in risk management and change control skills because of their encouraging personality, even throughout downturns or failures
  519. Team Meetings
    are used as a tool to bring people together to discuss project progress and communicate other important details concerning the project
  520. Teamwork Theory
    also referred to as the Tuckman Ladder. This theory originally incorporated four stages of development that most teams experience
  521. technical performance measurements
    compare technical accomplishments throughout project execution to the schedule of technical achievement
  522. technical risk
    is a type of risk that is usually aligned to quality and performance objectives
  523. The Gartner Group
    is a company that provides information and analysis relevant to technology
  524. threats
    see risks
  525. three-point estimates
    is also known as the PERT technique
  526. thresholds
    help determine the upper and lower limits of a process
  527. time and materials contract
    includes unit rates are set for labor and materials with no fixed total budget. The client may require a threshold or maximum amount where the vendor would be required to advise the client on project spending as it reaches budget limitations
  528. Time assumptions
    ensures delivering a project meets its critical path commitment, which is essential to maintaining the integrity of the project management process
  529. To-complete performance index (TCPI)
    is a calculated projection of course performance on work that has to be completed in order to meet a specific goal
  530. tools and techniques
    are methods, charts, techniques, and tools that are used throughout a project’s lifecycle to take process inputs and turn them into process outputs
  531. top-down estimating
    provides estimates for high-level activities such as documentation configuration and design without knowing details at the activity level. Top-down estimating is most useful at the early stages of development, when specific activity details may not be required
  532. tornado diagram
    is appropriately named because its appearance resembles the final of a tornado. It is simply a bar chart used for comparative analysis
  533. total float
    is used to determine the number of delays permitted from the start of the project that will not impede the project expected completion date
  534. trend analysis
    examines performance over time to indicate deterioration or improvement
  535. Triangular Distribution
    is a statistical distribution that increases linearly from a minimum to a maximum based upon an arbitrary value of “X”, and then decreases from the maximum to a minimum. “A” is defined as the minimum, “C” is defined as the peak and “B” is defined as the maximum. The triangular distribution provides the project team with a probability density for each value of X
  536. Use Case Diagrams
    are used to describe the visible interactions that the system will have with users and external systems. They can describe how a user would perform their role when using the system, which would assist in product development
  537. Validate Scope
    is the process whereby stakeholders formally accept the completed project scope and associated deliverables. Furthermore, it is the prescribed method for verifying the scope requirements of a project are fulfilled, and validating satisfaction. This process provides for formal acceptance of the Work Breakdown Structure and the project deliverables
  538. Value Assessment
    determines what data is worth resource allocations of time and money.
  539. variable sampling
    was developed to continuously measure quantities for quality control
  540. variance analysis
    is used with earned value management compares actual project performance to planned or expected performance most frequent analysis pertains to costs and schedule
  541. vendor data analysis
    is another method of determining project cost based upon responses provided by vendors that are deemed to be qualified
  542. version control
    is typically a component of software development and is used to control the release of software. Specific versions of software can incorporate different levels of feature functionality. Version control can work outside of the software realm, where multiple iterations of product development are required. Just like software, each iteration can be identified by a unique version number
  543. virtual teams
    are a technique for acquiring resources when the project activities support such a concept. They are a group of individuals with a common shared goal that can achieve project deliverables without a physical presence
  544. Waterfall Processes
    is a sequential design process, often used in software development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Production/Implementation, and Maintenance.
  545. what-if scenarios
    provide a review of multiple scenarios that may be required to realign schedule activities with the project plan
  546. Withdraw
    is where at least one party to the conflict avoids or withdraws from the conflict and decides not to deal with it. This is also known as Avoidance
  547. Withdrawal
    is similar to Smoothing where no solution is produced
  548. work breakdown structure (WBS)
    gives the project manager and team the ability to decompose project-based features to their lowest elements that can be monitored, managed, measured, and delivered upon. Details developed within the WBS permit the project manager to determine the project's critical path and schedule, and provide a tool to develop and deliver project metrics
  549. work package
    is a specific task that is part of a project's Work Breakdown Structure
  550. work performance metrics
    equate to the calculations for cost variance, schedule variance, cost performance index and schedule performance index as they relate to work packages within the WBS
  551. Work Performance Reports
    help the project manager determine overall project health
  552. work periods
    is known activity duration

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
314717
Filename:
All glossary
Updated:
2016-01-26 01:44:56
Tags:
PMP All glossary
Folders:

Description:
Learnsmart PMP All Glossary items unduplicated
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview