BIO211 Ch 3

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  1. What forms the backbone of most organic molecules?
  2. What is an isomer?
    An isomer is a compound with the same chemical formula but a different structural arrangement. This changes how the compound acts.
  3. What does it mean if a compound is composed only of hydrogen and carbon?
    They are called Hydrocarbons and are usually naturally occurring in sections of different compounds/molecules. Crude oil and natural gas are an example.
  4. Crude oil and natural gas are an example of what? Why are these important?
    • Hydrocarbons! 
    • These are important because they provide energy.
  5. Name six important chemical groups. Which five are functional groups?
    • - Hydroxyl 
    • - Carbonyl
    • - Carboxyl 
    • - Amino
    • - Phosphate
    • - Methyl

    All are part of functional group except for Methyl, which is nonpolar.
  6. What do the five functional groups (amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl, phosphate) have in common?
    They are all hydrophilic!
  7. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this group called?
    • Amino chemical group (Nitrogen and two hydrogens)! 
    • It is hydrophilic and creates amines. 
    • They help make the building blocks of proteins.
  8. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this group called and what differentiates it from another group?
    This is the Carbonyl group. It contains a carbon double bonded to oxygen. Specifically it is an aldehyde, because the chemical group is attached to the end of the compound.
  9. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this group called? What is specific about its arrangement?
    This is a Carbonyl chemical group. It contains an oxygen double bonded to carbon. This is a Ketone because the group is located in the center of the compound.
  10. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this chemical group called?
    • This is a Carboxyl chemical group, made up of carbon double bonded to oxygen and single bonded to a hydroxyl group. 
    • These are called carboxylic acids because they contribute H+ to a solution.
  11. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this group called?
    Hydroxyl group! They contain oxygen and hydrogen bonded to a carbon skeleton. These are called alochols.
  12. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this group called?
    This is a methyl group made up of one carbon and three hydrogens. It is nonpolar. Compounds with this group are called methylated compounds.
  13. Image UploadName the chemical group. What are compounds with this chemical group called?
    This the Phosphate group, made up of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. These are called organic phosphates and are often involved in energy transfers.
  14. Name the key components in a hydroxyl group, also known as alcohols.
    Oxygen and hydrogen.

  15. Name the key components of the Carbonyl groups, also known as aldehydes or ketones depending on the arrangement.
    Carbon double bonded to oxygen. 

  16. Name the key component of Carboxyl groups, also known as carboxylic acids.
    Carbon single bonded to hydroxyl (OH) and double bonded to oxygen.

    C-OH and =O
  17. Name the key components of Amino groups, also called amines.
    Nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens
  18. Name the key components of Phosphate groups, also called organic phosphates.
    Phosphorus bonded to four oxygens.
  19. Name the key components of methyl groups, also called methylated compounds.
    Carbon bonded to three hydrogens. 

  20. What are macromolecules?
    Macromolecules are chains of polymers. They are large molecules.
  21. Describe the relationship between monomers, poylmers and macromolecules. How do these join/break apart?
    • Monomers--> Polymers--> Macromolecules. 
    • (smallest)-------------------> largest

    These chains join via dehyration reactions and break apart via hydrolysis.
  22. What are specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions called?
  23. What are monosaccharides?
    They are simple sugars, the monomers of carbohydrates
  24. How are glucose and carbohydrates related?
    Glucose is a type of monosaccharide, which are building blocks for carbohydrates.
  25. How are glucose and fructose related?
    • They are isomers, meaning they have the same chemical structure but different arrangements.
    • Fructose is an isomer of glucose that tastes really sweet.
  26. What is high fructose corn syrup?
    corn syrup is starch, a polysaccharide made of glucose monomers.
  27. What is the difference between cellulose, starch, and glycogen?
    Cellulose and starch both come from plants. 

    Glycogen helps animals store glucose.
  28. What is the difference between a transfat, saturated and unsaturated fat?
    Saturated Fat: As full as it can be with maximum number of hydrogen atoms. These are bad. 

    Unsaturated: Contains one or more double bonds (still has room for more bonds)

    Transfat: Involved with hydrogenation, which turns unsaturated fats into saturated fats to increase shelf life. Linked to CAD
  29. Consuming 5% more saturated fats does what to your risk for coronary artery disease.
    It increases it by 17%
  30. What part of the cell depends on phospholipids?
    Cell membranes
  31. What makes up protein?
    amino acids are the polymers for protein
  32. What is it called when a proteins shape is changed, resulting in loss of function?
  33. What is the relationship between amino acids, peptide bonds and polypeptides?
    Amino acids are connnected together by peptide bonds. When a chain of amino acids is formed it creates a polypeptide.
  34. A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for plants to make:
  35. What structural level of a protein would be least affected by problems with hydrogen bonding?
    primary structure (sequence of amino acids in its poplypeptide chain)
  36. Name an example of an Isomer.
    Butane and Isobutane.
  37. What determines the shape of a protein?
    Four levels of structure: Primary (amino acides via peptide bonds), secondary (maintained via hydrogen bonds between atoms of polypeptides), tertiary (stabilized via interactions between R groups) and quaternary (for proteins with more than one polypeptide chain).
  38. Which level of protein structure utilizes amino acids and peptide bonds to create a polypeptide?
    Primary structure consists of amino acids/peptide bonds
  39. What level of protein structure involves the hydrogen bonds between atoms of polypeptides?
    Secondary structure! 

    This can be alpha, meaning it is in a coil/helix, or beta, a pleated sheet.
  40. What are the two types of secondary protein structure, which utilizes hydrogen bonds within the polypeptide chain?
    Alpha (helix) and Beta (pleated sheet)
  41. Steroids (type of lipid) help determine sex hormones. What is the difference (chemically) between testosterone and estradoil?
    Testosterone contains a methyl group (CH3), while estradoil contains a hydroxyl gorup (OH).

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BIO211 Ch 3
2016-01-27 05:15:14
Cellular Biology Cellularbiology BIO211

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