BIO211 CH 4

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  1. Which microscope can distinguish biological structures as small as ~2 nanometers?
    Electron microscope
  2. What kind of microscope is used to study the detailed architecture of a cell surface?
    Scanning Electron Microscopes can view the detailed make up of the cell surface.
  3. What are transmission electron microscopes used for? How is it different than scanning electron microscopes?
    Transmission electron microscopes study the internal cell structure, where scanning electron microscopes detail the architecture of the cell
  4. What advantage do smaller cells have over large cells?
    Smaller cells have a higher surface area for the volume of cell. This allows for increased exchange through the cell.
  5. What type of molecules pass through a cells plasma membrane easily? Which types of molecules are harder to pass?
    Nonpolar molecules easily pass through a plasma membrane (such as O2 or CO2), where polar or ionized molecules generally go through channels or pumps.
  6. What part of the bilayer phosopholipid plasma membrane faces the outside of the cell?
    The hydrophilic part of the phospholipid bilayer faces outward, the hydrophobic tails are in the middle and the phospholipid is on the inside
  7. What do prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have in common?
    The both have plasma membranes, ribosomes, and chromosomes containing DNA
  8. What is different about the DNA in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
    Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, but instead have a nucleoid region.
  9. What is the role of the peroxisomes?
    They detoxify the cell by creating hydrogen peroxide. Enzymes inside the peroxisome turns the hydrogen peroxide into H2O
  10. What structures do plant cells contain that animal cells lack?
    Chloroplasts, cell wall, central vacuole, and plasmodesmata (channels connecting the cell to other cells)
  11. Where is rRNA synthesized? What does rRNA do?
    Inside the nucleolus (which is located inside the nucleus). 

    rRNA helps assemble proteins that make up the subunits of ribosomes
  12. What is the main job of ribosomes? Where are these located?
    Ribosomes build proteins and are located both free-floating in the cytosol and attached to the rough ER
  13. What cellular structures are included in endomembrane system?
    nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles and plasma membrane.
  14. What is the largest component of the endomembrane system?
  15. What are the functional and structural differences between smooth and rough ER?
    Structural: Smooth ER lacks ribosomes, where rough ER is coated with ribosomes and is located near the plasma membrane. 

    • Functional: Smooth ER helps synthesize lipids, enzymes and storage of calcium ions. 
    • Rough ER helps with secretory proteins, such as insulin.
  16. What is the main function in the golgi apparatus?
  17. What is special about mitochondria?
    They contain their own DNA and membrane (phospholipid bilayer).
  18. What is the benefit to the cristae of the mitochondria?
    Cristae= folds within the inner membrane

    These folds create more surface area, allowing for more production of ATP (adenosen triphosphate)
  19. What is cellular respiration?
    Process converting chemical energy of sugars/food to ATP
  20. What plant and animal cell organelles are responsible for producing energy?
    Chloroplasts and mitochondria
  21. Where is the power created by chloroplasts stored?
  22. What cellular structural component makes up centrosomes?
    Micotubules. These are the largest support.
  23. What are the three types of fibers of the cytoskeleton?
    • 1- Microtubules (main component of cilia and flagella)
    • 2- Intermediate filaments (Keeps the nucleus in place)
    • 3- Microfilaments / Actin (helps move myosin to contract muscles)
  24. What does the "9+2" pattern refer to?
    nine microtubules in twos surrounding a pair of microtubules coming together to make flagellum or cilium assisting with movement
  25. What is the primary cilium?
    It does not help with movement but instead acts an an antenna. Each cell only contains one.
  26. Polycystic kidney disease is linked to defective _____.
    Primary cilia
  27. What are integrins?
    Integrins help attach microfilaments of cytoskeleton
  28. Which junction prevents leakage of fluid across a layer of epithelial cells?
    Tight junctions
  29. What do tight junctions do?
    Prevent leakage of fluid across a layer of epithelial cells (intestines)
  30. Which type of junctions fasten cells together into sheets?
    Anchoring junctions fasten cells together into sheets
  31. What do anchoring junctions do?
    Anchoring junctions fasten cells together into sheets
  32. What type of channels allow small molecules to flow through protein-lined pores between cells?
    Gap Junction's allow molecules to flow through protein-lined pores between cells
  33. What do gap junctions do?
    Allow small molecules to pass through protein lined pores between cells
  34. What is another name for anchoring junctions?
  35. What part of the cell is responsible for detoxification of liver cells?
    Smooth ER! This also aids in lipid synthesis and calcium ion storage, in addition to detoxification of liver cells
  36. What type of bonds occur in DNA?
    Covalent and Hydrogen
  37. What is the unity of life based on?
    DNA and a common genetic code
  38. What is high fructose corn syrup?
    It is a mixture of glucose and fructose derived from corn.
Card Set:
BIO211 CH 4
2016-02-03 16:14:34
cellular biology cellularbiology

Chapter 4 Cellular biology
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