GY 105 Chapter 1 Vocab

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  1. Areal differentiation
    describing and explaining the differences that distinguish one piece of the world from another
  2. Areal integration
    study of how places interact with one another
  3. Bubble economy
    a highly inflated economy that cannot be sustained, usually result from rapid influx of international capital into a developing country
  4. choropleth map
    maps different levels of intensity of data (such as per capita income or population density) placed within discrete spatial units (such as countries, cities, counties, or cultural regions)
  5. Colonialism
    formal establishment of rule over a foreign population
  6. Core-periphery model
    A conceptualization of the world into two economic spheres. The developed countries of western Europe, North America, and Japan form the dominant core, with less-developed countries making up the periphery. Implicit in this model is that the core gained its wealth at the expense of peripheral countries.
  7. Counterinsurgency
    more complicated, multifaceted strategy that combines military warfare with social and political service activities, designed to win over the local population and deprive insurgents of a political base
  8. cultural imperialism
    active promotion of one cultural system at the expense of another
  9. cultural landscape
    the visible, material expression of human settlement, past and present or a tangible expression of the human habitat
  10. cultural nationalism
    process of protecting and defending a cultural system against diluting or offensive cultural expressions, while at the same time actively promoting national and local cultural values
  11. cultural syncretism or hybridization
    most common product of cultural collision is the blending of forces to form a new, synergistic form of culture
  12. culture
    learned, not innate, and is behavior held in common by a group of people, empowering them with what is commonly called a “way of life”
  13. Decolonialization
    process of a colony’s gaining control over its own territory and establishing a separate, independent government
  14. demographic transition model
    conceptualization that tracked the changes in birthrates and death rate over time
  15. Diversity
    a tension between the global and the local
  16. Economic convergence
    idea that globalization will help world’s poorer countries gradually catch up with the more advance economies
  17. Ethnic religions
    identified closely with a specific ethnic, tribal, or national group
  18. Formal regions
    regions that are defined by some aspect of physical form or cultural features
  19. Functional regions
    where a certain activity takes place like economic activity or sports fans
  20. Gender
    sociocultural construct, linked to the values and traditions of specific cultural groups that differentiate the characteristics of the two biological sexes, male and female
  21. Gender equity
    a social condition, state, or goal of complete parity and equality between males and females
  22. Gender roles
    cultural guidelines that define appropriate behavior for each gender within a specific context
  23. geographic information systems (GIS)
    a computerized mapping and information system that analyzes vast amounts of data that may include many layers of specific kinds of information, such as microclimates, hydrology, vegetation, or land-use zoning regulations
  24. Geopolitics
    link between geography and politics, but focus on the interactivity between political power and territory at all scales, form the local to the global
  25. global positioning systems (GPS)
    originally used to describe a very accurate satellite-based location system, but now also used in a general sense to describe smartphone location systems that may use cell phone towers as a substitute for satellites
  26. Globalization
    the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging economic, political, and cultural activities
  27. graphic or linear scale
    visually depicts in a horizontal bar distance unit such as feet, meters, miles, or kilometers
  28. Gross domestic product (GDP)
    traditional measure of the size of a country’s economy is the value of all final goods and services produced within its borders
  29. Gross national income (GNI)
    with GDP is combined with net income from outside its borders through trade and other forms of income (also known as gross national product (GNP)
  30. Gross National income (GNI) per capita
    obtained by dividing GNI by the country’s population
  31. Human Development Index (HDI)
    combines data on life expectancy, literacy, educational attainment, gender equity, and income
  32. Insurgency
    a political rebellion or uprising
  33. Lingua franca
    an agreed-upon common language to facilitate communication on specific topics such as international business, politics, sports, or entertainment
  34. map projections
    different ways maps are projected onto a flat service
  35. map scale
    mathematical ratio between the map and the surface are being mapped
  36. meridians
    lines of longitude
  37. Nation-state
    nation describes a large group of people with shared sociocultural traits, such as language, religion, and shared identity, the word state refers to an internal political entity with clearly delimited boundaries, control over its internal space, and recognition by external political states.
  38. Neocolonialism
    characterized the many ways that newly independent states, particularly those in Africa, felt the continuing control of Western powers, especially in economic and political matter
  39. net migration rate
    statistic that indicates whether more people are entering or leaving a country
  40. parallels
    lines of latitude
  41. population density
    average number of people per area unit
  42. population pyramid
    graph that depicts the percentage of a population that is male or female in different age classes, from young to old
  43. prime meridian
    zero degrees longitude, from which locations east and west are measured in a system of latitude and longitude
  44. Purchasing power parity (PPP)
    takes into account the strength or weakness of local currencies
  45. rate of natural increase (RNI)
    annual growth rate for a country or region as a percentage found by subtracting number of deaths from the number of births
  46. Regions
    a geographic concept of areal or spatial similarity, large or small
  47. remote sensing
    a method of digitally photographing Earth’s surface from satellites or high altitude aircraft so that the information captured can be manipulated by computers to translate information into certain electromagnetic bandwidths, which, in turn, emphasizes certain features and patterns on Earth’s surface
  48. representative fraction
    relation between the map and the area being mapped
  49. secularism
    people who consider themselves either nonreligious or outright atheistic.
  50. Shi’a Islam
    The second largest denomination of Islam, whose adherents are called Shi’ites or Shias. While difficult to assess accurately, generally speaking 75-90 percent of the world’s Muslims are Sunni, with Shias making up the remainder of 10-25 percent.
  51. Sunni Islam
    The major denomination of Islam, with its adherents comprising from 75-90 percent of the world’s Muslims.
  52. Terrorism
    violence directed at nonmilitary targets
  53. total fertility rate (TFR)
    artificial and synthetic number that measures the fertility of a statistically fictitious, yet average group of women moving through their childbearing years
  54. Universalizing religions
    attempt to appeal to all peoples, regardless of location or culture
  55. urbanized population
    percentage of a country’s population living in cities
  56. vernacular regions
    defined solely in people’s minds as spatial stereotypes that have no visible boundaries in the physical landscape

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Author:
ds0029
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314828
Filename:
GY 105 Chapter 1 Vocab
Updated:
2016-01-27 18:27:56
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Geography
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GY 105 Chapter 1 Vocab
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