Resp2- Pathology 1

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  1. What are the 2 major components of the mucociliary elevator?
    mucus sheet (goblet cells, serous cells), ciliated epithelium (cilia beat in serous layer, move mucus upward toward nose/pharynx)
  2. What are the components of pulmonary clearance (getting rid of what got in, that shouldn't be there)? (2)
    mucociliary elevator, pulmonary alveolar macrophages
  3. What are the main functions of the pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs)? (3)
    phagocytize particulares that reach alveoli, move them out of the lungs, and/or transport particles to lymph nodes to elicit immune response
  4. Describe the concept of anatomic geometry.
    the respiratory system is a series of tubes with progressively decreasing diameter from the nasopharynx; therefore, the surface area to volume ratio in the large tubes (trachea) is low, but it is high in small tubes (bronchioles)
  5. Diseases dependent on surface area, such as _____________, are most important where surface area is __________ with respect to volume.
    inflammation; large
  6. Diseases which impinge on volume, such as ___________, are most important where volume is __________ compared to surface area.
    obstruction; small
  7. What are the functions of the nasopharynx? (4)
    conduction of air, filtration of air, clearance of particulates, air modification
  8. What developmental abnormalities lead to diseases obstructing airflow in the nasopharynx? (3)
    • brachycephaly (reduced luminal space)
    • stenotic nares (alar fold abnormalities)
    • choanal atresia (camelids)
  9. What categories of disease can cause obstruction of airflow in the nasopharynx? (3)
    developmental abnormalities, inflammation, space-occupying masses
  10. Inflammatory causes of obstructed airflow in the nasopharynx. (5)
    viral, bacterial (usually secondary to viral), fungal (aspergillus, cryptococcus), immune mediated, parasitic (rare)
  11. What types of space-occupying masses can cause obstruction of airflow in the nasopharynx? (3)
    neoplasms, inflammatory polyps, granulomas/abscesses (Aspergillus, Rhinosporidium)
  12. What are the 3 most common neoplasms that obstruct airflow in the nasopharynx?
    nasal adenocarcinoma (dogs), lymphoma (cats), squamous cell carcinoma (horses) [almost always malignant]
  13. What are inflammatory polyps?
    non-neoplastic proliferative masses composed of stroma, epithelium, and inflammation (most common in cats)
  14. What are some diseases leading to loss of filtration and air modification? (2)
    palatoschisis (cleft palate), progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine
  15. How does palatoschisis lead to loss of filtration and air modification?
    ingest passes from oral cavity to nasal cavity, causing rhinitis +/- aspiration pneumonia
  16. What are the etiologic agents of progressive atrophic rhinitis of swine?
    Pasteurella multocida type D +/- Bordatella bronchiseptica
  17. Dermonectrotic toxin associated with progressive atrophic rhinitis in pigs leads to...
    reduced osteoblast bone formation and increase osteoclast bone resorption--> turbinate atrophy and distortion of the snout--> bacterial bronchopneumonia
  18. Destruction of the filtration and air modification structures (turbinates) predisposes to...
    lower respiratory tract disease (pneumonia).
  19. What are the functions of the larynx? (3)
    air conduction, air filtration/particulate clearance, protection of lower respiratory tract during deglutition
  20. Describe the anatomic geometry of the larynx and potential consequences of obstruction.
    narrow lumen, small SA, no auxiliary air flow--> easily obstructed with catastrophic consequences
  21. Major causes of obstruction of air flow in the larynx. (5)
    developmental- elongated soft palate, epiglottal entrapment in brachycephalics, laryngeal hemiplagia (roarers), laryngeal paralysis in dogs, inflammation (laryngitis), neoplasia (uncommon)
  22. What is the fundamental cause of roarers?
    degeneration of left recurrent laryngeal nerve, resulting in left cricoarytenoid muscle atrophy--> failure to abduct arytenoid--> inspiratory stridor
  23. What are causes of laryngeal paralysis in dogs?
    idiopathic, polyneuopathy, hypothyroidism
  24. What are etiologies o laryngitis in cattle? (3)
    BHV-1, Fusobacterium necrophorum, trauma (baling gun injury)
  25. What neoplasias are most common for obstructing the larynx? (2)
    lymphoma (cats), squamous cell carcinoma (dogs)
  26. What causes calf diphtheria?
    calves weaned--> bawling constantly--> vocal folds smack together, causing trauma--> infection with local flora--> fibronecrotic exudate obstructs lumen of larynx
  27. What are the functions of the trachea and bronchi? (2)
    air conduction and filtration, particulate clearance through mucociliary elevator
  28. ____________ of the trachea and bronchi are usually unimportant in large animals due to the large diameter, but these same diseases can be life-threatening in smaller animals.
    Inflammation
  29. What types of diseases of the trachea and bronchi cause obstruction of air flow? (4)
    developmental, degenerative, inflammation, neoplasms
  30. What types of developmental diseases of the trachea and bronchi cause obstruction of air flow? (1)
    tracheal hypoplasia in brachycephalic dogs
  31. What types of degenerative diseases of the trachea and bronchi cause obstruction of air flow? (1)
    tracheal collapse- middle aged miniature dogs due to dorsoventral narrowing
  32. What examples of inflammatory diseases of the trachea and bronchi cause obstruction of air flow? (4)
    • viral- herpes viruses, paramyxovirus, adenovirus
    • bacterial- Bordatella bronchiseptica
    • parasites- Dictyocaulus viviparous, Syngamus, Oslerus
    • immune-mediated- feline asthma, heaves in horses
  33. What is an example of a neoplasm of the trachea and bronchi cause obstruction of air flow? (1)
    granular cell tumors in horses
  34. Permanent dilation of bronchi as a result of chronic bronchial obstruction and infection.
    bronchiectasis
  35. What are the major events of bronchiectasis and how do they lead to chronic infections? (8)
    • 1- severe and chronic inflammation
    • 2- destruction of bronchial walls
    • 3- obstruction of lumen by inflammatory exudate
    • 4- weakening of bronchial wall
    • 5- scar tissue (fibrosis) formation
    • 6- reduced filtration efficiency
    • 7- net accumulation of particles
    • 8- chronic infections
  36. Defect in ciliary function so that they cannot move the mucus sheet; can also manifest with situs inversus and infertility (sperm cannot move).
    Ciliary dyskinesis
  37. Reduced temperature, dehydration, reducing clearance of pathogens by causing ____________.
    physical impairment of cilia
  38. What viral and bacterial agents cause decreased ciliary clearance? (1 of each)
    IBR in cows, Bordatella
  39. What types of diseases can result in reduced clearance of pathogens? (5)
    ciliary dyskinesis, physical impairment, chemical irritation, infectious agents, inflammation
  40. ____________ is a major effect of disease of the trachea and bronchi.
    Reduced particle clearance
  41. Functions of the bronchioles. (2)
    air conduction, clearance
  42. What accounts for the increased deposition of particles within the bronchioles, and what is the consequence of this?
    rapid reduction in air velocity at the bronchioles--> many aerogenous insults affect this region
  43. Describe the sequence of events that leads to obstruction of the bronchioles. (5)
    • 1- exudate accumulation due to inflammation +/- epithelial damage
    • 2- narrowing of airway lumen, inhibiting airflow
    • 3- rapid spread to alveoli--> pneumonia
    • 4- chronic inflammation
    • 5- proliferation, mucus secretion, and obstruction
  44. What epitheliotropic viruses target the bronchioles? (4)
    CDV, BRSV, herpesviruses, influenza
  45. Partial or complete collapse of the lung.
    atelectasis
  46. ___________ tend to be the primary site of particle accumulation, leading them to be the first affected in aerogenous disease (bacterial pneumonia).
    Bronchioles
  47. Infection/inflammation of bronchioles often spread to ___________, causing __________.
    alveoli; pneumonia
  48. What is the function of alveoli?
    gas exchange
  49. Total alveolar surface area is _______; therefore, ________ disease is less important than _________ disease.
    large; focal; diffuse
  50. Processes that _____________ reduce gas exchange in the lungs.
    increase the thickness of the alveolar gas exchange barrier
  51. What are some disease processes that increase the thickness of the alveolar diffuse barrier? (4)
    edema, exudate, cellular proliferation, cellular metaplasia
  52. Inflammation centered on bronchioles with secondary spread to alveoli.
    bronchopneumonia
  53. Bronchopneumonia frequently has an ___________ portal of entry.
    aerogenous
  54. What is the usual distribution of bronchopneumonia?
    cranioventral distribution
  55. At what percent of lung affected does bronchopneumonia generally become life-threatening?
    30%
  56. What are bacterial causes of bronchopneumonia in ruminants? (5)
    Manheimia haemolytica, Histophilus somni, Pasteurella multocida, Truperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma
  57. What are bacterial causes of bronchopneumonia in horses? (3)
    Streptococcus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Actinobacillus equuli
  58. What are bacterial causes of bronchopneumonia in swine? (5)
    Streptococcus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, Mycoplasma, Bordatella bronchisepticus, Actinobacillus suis
  59. What are bacterial causes of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats? (3)
    Streptococcus spp, E. coli, Pasteurella multocida
  60. Inflammation centeres on the air-blood barrier.
    interstitial pneumonia
  61. Interstitial pneumonia frequently has a(n) __________ portal of entry or is part of a __________.
    vascular; disseminated disease (viral pneumonia)
  62. What is the usual distribution of interstitial pneumonia?
    diffuse distribution
  63. What are causes of interstitial pneumonia? (6)
    bacterial septicemia, viremia or viral pneumonia, protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii in kittens), toxins, immune-mediated, acute respiratory distress syndrome
  64. What is a critical sequelae to pneumonia?
    systemic hypoxia
  65. What are the 2 possible end points of pneumonia?
    • tissue recovery--> restoration of pulmonary structures
    • tissue loss and replacement--> chronic fibrosis--> reduced gas exchange
  66. Collapse of alveoli or failure of the alveoli to inflate, reducing ventilation.
    atelectasis
  67. What are examples of diseases that cause atelectasis? (4)
    pleural fluid, pneumothorax, space-occuying masses, exudate in airways
  68. Abnormal, permanent enlargement of air spaces accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls.
    emphysema
  69. Emphysema causes __________ lung compliance, leading to decreased _____________ and inability to ___________.
    increased; elasticity; expel air
  70. What is the most common form of emphysema in domestic species?
    interstitial emphysema (air in interlobular septae)
  71. Fluid accumulation in the interstitium or alveoli.
    pulmonary edema
  72. Pulmonary edema leads to increased __________, which can result in __(3)__.
    capillary hydrostatic pressure; left-sided heart failure, hypotensive shock, capillary damage
  73. Pulmonary edema can cause an obstruction of ___________ in the lung or mediastinum.
    lymphatics
  74. Physically, pulmonary hemorrhage has the same effect as ________.
    edema
  75. Occlusion of pulmonary arteries by intraluminal mass.
    pulmonary embolism
  76. What are potential causes of pulmonary embolism? (3)
    Dirofilaria immitus adult worms, metastatic neoplasia, protein-losing disease
  77. What is infarction of the lungs rare in animals?
    dual blood supply- pulmonary and bronchial
  78. What types of space-occupying masses occur in the lungs? (3)
    neoplasms, abscesses, granulomas
  79. What is the function of the pleural cavity?
    supports mechanics of ventilation--> expansion volume, negative pressure
  80. What are the types of pleural effusion and a cause of each? (3)
    • hydrothorax- congestive heart failure
    • chylothorax- ruptured thoracic duct, neoplasia
    • hemothorax- trauma, rodenticide toxicity, hemangiosarcoma
  81. Pleuritic inflammation.
    pyothorax
  82. What space occupying masses can affect the pleural cavity? (3)
    neoplasms, abscesses, visceral masses causing diaphragmatic hernia
  83. Describe acute pleuritis versus chronic pleuritis.
    • acute: painful, voluntary restriction of ventilation
    • chronic: fibrous adhesions restrict respiration
Author:
Mawad
ID:
314888
Card Set:
Resp2- Pathology 1
Updated:
2016-02-04 01:02:34
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