Is responsible for delivering of the traffic directly to the end user.
•Varies the height of a signals wave
•Represents the binary data as variance of wave height
•Uses Symbol Periods to devide data
the height, force, or power of a wave
traditional term for access pont, 2 physical interfaces a RF radio card and a 10/100BaseT port
If a signal fluctuates or is altered, even slightly, data can be properly sent and received.
•Creating the signal
–Amplitude and Wavelength
carry large amounts of information between key data centers or distribution areas
Used for Switching vs. Routing
–Routes Traffic Between VLAN’s
–Routes Traffic Between Subnets
Federal Communications Comission (FCC)
It was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is responsible for regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
•Describes Wave Behavior
–Measured over a 1 second period
–Radiate away from the source
•The number of waves within the 1 second time period determines the frequency of the signal
•Used to break up contention domains and avoid interference
frequency-shift keying (FSK)
•Varies Frequency to deliver signal
•A current state technique allowing one frequency to represent a 0 and another to represent a 1
High Throughput (HT)
High Throughput (HT) provides PHY and MAC enhancements to support wireless throughput of 100 Mbps and greater. HT is defined by the 802.11n draft amendment for clause 20 radios.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
•Global Professional Society
•Fosters Technological Innovation
•Divided into Working Groups
•Best Known for LAN Standards
International Organization for Standization (IOS)
•Identifies Business, Government and Social Needs
•Created the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunications Sector (ITU-R)
•Tasked by the United Nations
•Conducts Global Spectrum Management
•Divided Into Five Regions
A keying method is what changes a signal into a carrier signal. It provides the signal with the ability to encode data so that it can be communicated or transported.
lighweight access points
a centralized WLAN architecture together with WLAN controller, tunnel 802.11 wireless traffic to the WLAN controller which is typically deployed at either the distribution or core laye
The manipulation of a signal so that the receiving station has a way of distinguishing 0s and 1s.
•Describes relationship between waves
–In phase = 0 degrees of separation
–Out of phase = 1 to 359 degrees of separation
•Varies the phase to represent data, change in beginning represents a 1 and no change a represents a 0
•Used extensively in 802.11
–Several types used
–Can determine data rates
Regulatory Domain Authority
Local regulatory domain authorities of individual countries or regions define the spectrum policies and transmit power rules.
Robust Security Networks (RSN)
robust security network (RSN) is a network that only allows for the creation of robust security network associations (RSNAs). An RSN utilizes CCMP/AES encryption as well as 802.1X/EAP authentication.
Spread spectrum transmission uses more bandwidth than is necessary to carry its data. Spread spectrum technology takes the data that is to be transmitted and spreads it across the frequencies that it is using.
distance between similar points on two back-to-back waves.
measured from the peak of a wave to the peak of the next wave.
brand marketing name that is used by the Wi-Fi Alliance to promote 802.11 WLAN technology.
•Ensures and Tests for Interoperability
•Certifies Wireless Products
•Coined the term Wi-Fi
•Originally Called the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA)
provided a set of guidelines to ensure compatibility among vendors.
The 802.11 standard is defined as a wireless local area network technology.
WLAN controllers are used in a centralized WLAN architecture together with lightweight access points, also known as thin APs,