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Blood pressure = _____ x ______
Cardiac output x Systemic vascular resistance
Prehypertension BP is
120-139 or 80-89
Hypertension, stage 1 BP is
140-159 or 90-99
Hypertension, stage 2 BP is
greater than/equal to 160 or g/e to 100
Primary Hypertension is elevated BP without an identifed cause, and it accounts for ___ to ___ of all cases of hypertension.
90% TO 95%
Secondary hypertension is elevated BP with a specific cause that can often be identified and corrected. Accounts for ___ to ____ of hypertension in adults.
5% to 10%
Risk factors for primary hpertension include:
Age, Alcohol, Tobacco use, Diabetes mellitus, Elevated serum lipids, Excess dietary sodium, Gender, Family history, Obesity, ethnicity, sedentary lifestyle, stress.
Secondary symptoms for hypertension include:
fatigue, dizziness, palpitations, angina, and dyspnea.
Complications of hypertension are targeted organ diseases occurring in the...
heart (hypertensive heart disease), brain (cerebrovascular disease), Kidneys (nephrosclerosis), and eyes (retinal damage).
Lifestyle modifications directed toward reducing the patient's BP and overall cardiovascular risk include...
- Weight reduction
- DASH Eating Plan
- Dietary sodium reduction
- Moderation of alcohol consumption
- regular physical activity
- avoidance of tobacco use
- management of psychosocial risk factors
Weight reduction: A weight loss of 22 lb may decrease SBP by approximately __ to __ mm Hg.
5 to 20 mm Hg
DASH Eating plan emphasizes...
fruits, vegetables, fat-free/low fat milk and milk products, whole grains, fish, poultry, beans, seeds, and nuts. (less red meat, slats, sweets, added sugars, and sugar-containing beverages.)
Dietary Sodium reduction: Healthy adults should restrict sodium intake to less than or equal to ____ mg/day.
African Americans; people middle aged and older; those with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease should restrict sodium to less than or equal to ___ mg/day.
Moderation of Alcohol Consumption: Men should limit their intake of alcohol to no more than __ drinks a day. Women/lighter men to __ drink a day.
A drink = 12 oz beer, 5 oz wine, or 1.5 oz of 80-proof spirits.
- Men 2 drinks a day
- women/lighter men 1 drink a day
Avoidance of tobacco products: Nicotine contained in tobacco causes ____ and increases BP.
Diuretics: inhibit ___ reabsorption, initial decrease of ECF. Sustained decrease in SVR.
drug name: ___thiazide
Bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide
Inhibit ACE, reduce conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin II.
drug name: ____pril
Agiontensin inhibitors: benazepril, captopril, ealapril
Directly inhibits renin, thus reducing conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1.
May cause angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and/or larynx. Not to be used in pregnancy.
Renin inhibitors: aliskiren
Inhibit movement of Ca 2+ across cell membrane, resulting in vasodilation.
Calcium channel blockers
Develops over hours to days.
A situation in which a patient's BP is severely elevated (often above 220/140 mmHg) with clinical evidence of target organ disease. Hypertensive emergencies can cause encephalopathy, intracranial or subarachnoid hemorrhage, acute left ventricular failure, MI, renal failure, dissecting aortic aneurysm, and retinopathy.
develops over days to weeks. This is a situation in which a patient's BP is severely elevated (180/110 mmHg), but there is no clinical evidence of target organ disease.