Summer AP euro

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Author:
Thisisama
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31494
Filename:
Summer AP euro
Updated:
2010-08-27 17:18:15
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AP euro
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AP euro first deck
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  1. “little ice age”
    • a small drop in the overall
    • temperature which caused extreme storms and a shorter season for growing crops,
    • leading to food shortages that killed 10%
    • of europeans as well as ruining endless more lives (took place at end of
    • the 13th century)
  2. Black death
    • the spread of multiple plagues most notably
    • bubonic caused extreme changes in the structure of Europe as well as turmoil
    • and choas
    • It killed over 50% of those affected and caused
    • bacterial infections, a bad cough, fevers, lymph nodes swelling, dark spots.
    • The
    • plague was spread a lot by trading mongols

    • ·
    • 1347-1351 about 19-38 million people died

    • ·
    • It wasnt until th 16th century the
    • population of europe finally began to rise again, and even longer to reach the
    • population that europe had prior to the bubonic plague
    • The bubonic plague changed the lifestyle of most
    • people. Knowing how short life was, people started living selfish risky
    • lifestyles
    • People tried to explain why the bubonic plague
    • was there and a populkar theory was it was gods punishment
  3. flagellants
    people who would wander around constantly whipping themselves to earn the forgiveness of god. became popular during the bubonic plague



    1. pogroms





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    • mass organized killings of jews
    • Many jews fled to Russia because they recieved
    • protection there
    • They were condemned by the church and police were instructed to kill them
    • Jews were a common scape goat-people said they poisoned water wells. Jews were burnt to death in masseres
  4. Jacquerie
    • A peasant revolt in nothern france as the result of the destruction of order by the black death. castles were burned and nobles were killed
    • A peasant revolt against knights took place in france when about 100 peasants when off the deep end and raped killed and murdered the knights families in front of them before they killed the knights
    • and then burned the castles. Their numbers grew to 6000 and they continued.
    • They did really really sick things

    1. English Peasants’ Revolt of 1381


    • peasants revolted when the monarchy attempted to raise taxes/ Led by Wat Tyler and John Ball
    • who believed there should be no classes
  5. Wat Tyler and John Ball
    leader of English peasant revolts
  6. Battle of Crecy
    • During the hundred years war, Edward III England invaded Normandy and met Phillip VI of England's army in Crecy. The French army was larger, but they depended on knight's in heavy armor on horses while the smaller English army depended on the long bow. They shot easily into the crowd knocking down horses and rendering the rider immoble without help.
    • Although battle was won by England by a long shot, it did little because they didn't have the resources to take control of their conquered lands
  7. Edward the Black Prince
    King Edward III of England's son

    The black prince’s strategy was to avoid conflict and plunder and attack towns, depleating French resources.

    When the black prince was finally put into battle at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 he captured the king and the french were forced to pay a lot of money in return for King John as well as giving the English Gascony and more (treaty of bretigny)

    Though it was not a complete success since Edward III couldnt gain control of France
  8. Battle of Poitiers
    • 1356 battle lead by the black prince who defeated King John II of France's armies as well as capturing King John II. Ended first phase of Hundreed Years War and ended with the PEace of Bretigny where teh French had to pay a great sum of money and give a lot of their territory to England.
    • English in return gave the thrown back to King John II.
  9. Peace of Bretigny
    Ended first phase of Hundreed Years War and ended with the PEace of Bretigny where teh French had to pay a great sum of money and give a lot of their territory to England.English in return gave the thrown back to King John II.
  10. Charles V
    King of France, Successor to King John II, and despite the Treaty of Bretigny reconquered most of the land France had lost.
  11. Henry V
    King of England, renewed 100 years war in a time of innerturmoil in france, which he used to his advantage.Conquered Normandy and much of France, killed alot of nobles. Treatyof Troyes in 1420 was arranged which married Henry V to Charles VI's daughter, Catherine, making him the king of Northern France.
  12. Treatyof Troyes
    in 1420 was arranged which married Henry V to Charles VI's daughter, Catherine, making him the king of Northern France.
  13. Battle of Agincourt
    When King of England, renewed 100 years war in a time of innerturmoil in france, which he used to his advantage.Conquered Normandy and much of France, killed alot of nobles. Ended with the Treaty of Troyes
  14. Joan of Arc
    • was a religious peasant girl who believed to
    • experience visions that she had to have dauphin of free France crowned as king,
    • and persuaded King Charles to let her go with the army to Orleans, where they
    • were inspired by her religiousness and freed orleans.

    She was captured by Burgundian allies of the english and she was put on the stake because she was charged of witchraft because of her mens clothing and prophesizing.

    Later she was made a saint

    • ·
    • Turned tide in french favor
  15. Parliament
    • During the reign of Edward III, there was a great need for funding for the Hundred Years War, which meant they needed Parliament to manage where the money came from and how they got it, which meant parliament became a much greater force in england
    • Organization structure:
    • “Great Council of barons” that “became the House of Lords and evolved into a body composed of the chief bishops and abbots of the realm, and the aistocratic peers whose position in parliament was
    • hereditary.”
    • House of Commons—middle class people that didnt
    • have as powerful of a position
  16. War of the Roses
    1377 Richar II took up the thrown. He wasn't too popular with the peasants and ontop of that there were nobles who were competing with one another for power. One group of nobles led by Henry of Lancaster killed Richard II and became the new King. King Henry IV. The competing of different groups of nobles became known as the "War of the Roses"
  17. Estates General
    Northern France's system of governing that resembled English parliment that consisted of a clergy branch, a nobility branch and a third estate (common folk) which represented nothern france.
  18. Etienne Marcel
    • Leader during the Meeting of the Estates General 1357.
    • The 3rd estate agreed to be taxed as long as King John's son wouldn't tax extra with out consulting the Estates General
  19. Golden bull
    German piece of legislation issued by Emperor Charles IV. It said that there would be four princes, 3 archbishop rulers who elected the king of the Romans
  20. condottieri
    Mercanaries that were hired by provinces in Italy in order to expand their provinces. Their loyalty lay with who payed them the most
  21. GiangaleazzzoVisconti
    purchased title of duke of milan in Italy, and from there spread his power to encompass most of Northern Italy.
  22. Ordinances of Justice
    • The Popolo grasso (fat people) took control of Florence with this piece of legislation, which also layed out a branched governmental structure with different classes of people.
    • Theexecutive branch of the government belonged to elected officials called the signoria, and the judicious person was called the gonfaloniere. Other groups present in cort were the popolo minuto—shopkeepers and artisons, and the ciompi, or whool workers.
  23. Council of Ten
    Venitian head body of government, that was prided for being an extrodinarily stable government.
  24. Pope Boniface VIII
    Had a conflict with King Phillip IV of France who wanted to tax the clergy. The pope refused and excommunicated King Phillip IV, who in response sent forces to go put him in jail. He was freed from jail within a day but the shock killed him within the month and was a severe blow to the image of the church.
  25. King Philip IV
    French King who had a conflict with Pope Boniface VIII because Phillip IV wanted to tax the clergy. The pope refused and excommunicated King Phillip IV, who in response sent forces to go put him in jail. He was freed from jail within a day but the shock killed him within the month and was a severe blow to the image of the church.
  26. Unam Sanctam
    documents by Pope Boniface III, asserting his power over the french monarchy. got him thrown in jail
  27. Pope Clement V
    • Clement V was French
    • He did what no pope had done and resided in Avignon, closer to Franc
    • Caused a weakining in the papal image for generations to come ebcause people believed he was easily manipulated by French
  28. Avignon
    • Pope Clement V moved to here, which was closer to France than Rome.
    • Caused a weakining in the papal image for generations to come ebcause people believed he was easily manipulated by French
  29. Catherine of Siena
    Believed she had visions from God and went to go visit Pope Gregory XI to tell him that he has to use his power given to him by God for good or resign.
  30. Pope Gregory XI
    Papacy returned to Rome with Pope Gregory Xi
  31. Pope Urban VI
    • People wanted an Italian pope, so an italian was
    • crowned Pope Urban VI
    • Because the French had been driven from the elections by angry roman mobs, thy considered Pope Urban VI’s election void and chose their own pope Clement VII.
    • The election of two popes became known as the great schism
    • -Weakened church
  32. Marsiglio of Padua
    Frenchman who wrote Defender of Peace. The book stated that the church should only be concerned with spiritual matters not governmental matters. popular book.
  33. conciliarism
    The belief that only a council of the head members of the church could end the great schism.

    Council of Pisa met in 1409 scratched both of the old popes and appointed a new man for pope named Alexander V.

    old popes Urban VI and Clement VII refused to step down
  34. Council of Pisa
    met in 1409 scratched both of the old popes and appointed a new man for pope named Alexander V. old popes Urban VI and Clement VII refused to step down
  35. Council of Constance
    met in 1414. got rid of all 3 popes in various ways. appointed new pope
  36. Emperor Sigismund
    Head of Council of Constance which got rid of all 3 popes and appointed Pope Martin V
  37. Pope Martin V
    Council of Constance got rid of all 3 popes and appointed Pope Martin V as the new pope
  38. Meister Eckhart
    teacher of mystism (the immediate experience of oneness with god). his movement spread from germany into other countries and dominoed the spread of Modern Devotion
  39. Modern Devotion
    caused by spread of Mystism, founded by Gerard Groote. To achieve spiritual oneness with god people had to imitate Jesus
  40. William of Occam
    a philosophy. nominalist who believed that we could not actually could comprehend god. and that we could not establish anything in the world as true.
  41. Dante Alegheri
    wrote vernacular Divine Comedy
  42. Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch)
    Wrote vernacular sonnets
  43. Giovanni Boccaccio
    Wrote vernacular prose, most well known for decameron
  44. Christine de Pizan
    Wrote The Book of the City of Ladies denouncing male authors who wrote that women should be submissive to men and should be treated as inferiors because they are prone to evil. One of the origional femenists.
  45. Giotto
    Artist who started the realism movement in florence

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