Bio 3400 - Lecture 1 PI

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  1. Macronutrients
    Nutrients required in large quantities by an organism
  2. Micronutrients
    Nutrients required in trace amounts by organisms
  3. Nutrients
    Monomers or precursors of monomers required for cell growth
  4. Protein content of cells (by % dry total weight)
    55%
  5. RNA content of cells (by % dry weight)
    20.5%
  6. Basic nutrients for all organisms?
    • Sodium phosphate
    • Potassium phosphate
    • Sodium chloride
    • Ammonium chloride
    • Water
    • Magnesium sulfate
    • Calcium chloride
    • Glucose
  7. Carbon % (total dry mass)
    50%
  8. Heterotrophs
    Use organic carbon
  9. Autotrophs
    use CO2
  10. Nitrogen % (total dry weight)
    13%
  11. Nitrogen uses
    Proteins, nucleic acids and others
  12. Phosphorus
    • Macronutrient
    • Synthesis of phospholipids and nucleic acids
  13. Sulfur
    • Macronutrient
    • Methionine and Cysteine
    • Vitamins (CoA)
  14. Potassium
    • Macronutrient
    • Required for enzyme activity
  15. Growth factors
    Organic compounds required in small amounts by certain organisms
  16. Vitamins
    • Coenzymes
    • Most commonly required growth factors
  17. Culture media
    Nutrient solutions used to grow microbes in the lab
  18. Culture media classes
    • Defined - Precise chemical composition is known
    • Complex - Digests of chemically undefined substances (yeast, meat etc)
  19. Enriched media
    Complex media plus additional nutrients
  20. Selective media
    Compounds inhibting growth of specific organisms
  21. Differential media
    Contain indicators that reveal chemical reactions
  22. Pure culture
    Culture containing only a single type of microbe
  23. Steps in asceptic transfer?
    • 1. Flame loop
    • 2. Remove tube cap
    • 3. Flame tube tip
    • 4. Dip portion of loop
    • 5. Reflame tube and recap
    • 6. Flame loop after transfer
  24. Catbolism
    • Yields energy
    • Breaks down macromolecules
  25. Two classes of chemotrophs
    • Chemoorganotroph - Organic compounds
    • Chemolithotroph - Inorganic compounds
  26. Exergonic
    • Negative ΔG
    • Release free energy
  27. Endergonic
    • Positive ΔG
    • Absorb free energy
    • Unfavourable
  28. Activation energy
    Energy required to bring all substrates to reactive state
  29. Catalyst
    • Lowers free energy of a reaction
    • Increases reaction rate without being consumed
    • Does not affect energetics
  30. Enzymes
    • Mostly protein, some RNA
    • Specific
    • Rely on weak bonds (Hydrophobic, H-bonds etc)
  31. Effect of enzymatic catalysis on reaction rate
    108-1020
  32. Prosthetic group
    • Tightly bound to enzyme (covalent or other)
    • Heme
  33. Coenzymes
    • Loose binding to enzymes
    • Derived from vitamins
    • NADH
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Ant
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Bio 3400 - Lecture 1 PI
Updated:
2016-01-30 01:39:36
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Bio 3400
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