Astronomy HW#01 Charting the Heavens

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  1. According to Kepler's ____ law, if you know the planet's orbital period, you can find its average distance from the Sun
    Third
  2. That Polaris will not always be the pole star is due to
    A.) the sidereal day being shorter than the solar day.
    B.) precession shifting the celestial pole.
    C.) the Earth's revolution being slightly less than exactly 365.25 days.
    D.) the Moon following the ecliptic, instead of the equator.
    E.) the Solar winds blowing the Earth farther away from the Sun.
    B
  3. True or false:

    Kepler found the orbits of planets are ellipses, not circles.
    True
  4. True or false:

    The stars in a constellation are physically close to one another.
    False
  5. Copernicus' Heliocentric theory explains that

    A.) Mars will retrograde when it reaches a certain position on its epicycle.
    B.) Venus retrogrades when she overtakes us at inferior conjunction.
    C. all planets lie between the Sun and Earth.
    D.) planetary orbits are elliptical in shape.
    E.) the Sun lies at one focus of an ellipse.
    B
  6. The fact that the Earth has moved along its orbit in the time it took to rotate once is the reason for

    A.) the difference between solar and sidereal time.
    B.) precession.
    C.) seasons.
    D.) the position of the Celestial Equator.
    E.) Earth's 23.5-degree tilt.
    A
  7. Tycho Brahe's contribution to Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion were

    A.) his detailed and accurate observations of the planets' positions.
    B.) a precise lunar calendar.
    C.) the correct explanation of lunar phases.
    D.) a mathematical explanation of epicycles.
    E.) his observations of Jupiter's moons.
    A
  8. True or false:
    Latitude and right ascension are coordinate systems used to find objects on the celestial sphere.TrueFalse
    False
  9. The 26,000 year cycle that changes the poles and equinoxes is called
    A.) precession.
    B.) regression.
    C.) revolution.
    D.) a retrograde loop.
    E.) the Earth's rotation.
    A
  10. In the Northern Hemisphere, it is colder in the winter than in the summer because ________.
    A.) the Sun is closer to Earth during the winter
    B.) the Sun is farther from Earth during the winter
    C.) he Sun shines down more directly during the winter
    D.) the Sun shines down at more of an angle during the winter
    D
  11. This diagram explains

    A.) the difference between solar time and sidereal time.
    B.) the reason for the solstices.
    C.) precession.
    D.) the sidereal day's relation to the seasons.
    E.) the solar day's relation to the Moon.

    Image Upload
    A
  12. The star Thuban in Draco
    A.) was an excellent pole star in 3,000 BC.
    B.) lies halfway between the bowls of the Big and Little Dippers.
    C.) lies as the center of the precession cycle.i
    D.) s brighter than Polaris.
    E.) is used to locate the vernal equinox.
    A
  13. What physical property of Earth gives rise to the seasons?

    A.) The precession of its axis
    B.) The tilt of its rotation axis to the plane of its orbit
    C.) The variation in its distance from the Sun
    D.)Changes in the day-night cycle
    B
  14. The twelve constellations the solar system bodies move through are the

    A.) galactic equator.
    B.) signs of the zodiac.
    C.) equatorial constellations.
    D.) stages of heaven.
    E.) nodes of the ecliptic.
    B
  15. True or False:

    The sidereal day is determined by the Earth's rotation with respect to the stars.
    True
  16. This diagram explains

    A.) the difference between solar time and sidereal time.
    B.) the sidereal day's relation to the seasons.
    C.) precession.
    D.) the reason for the solstices.
    E.) the solar day's relation to the Moon.

    Image Upload
    A
  17. Kepler's first law worked, where Copernicus' original heliocentric model failed, because Kepler described the orbits as

    A.) around the Sun, not the Earth.
    B.) complex, with epicycles to account for retrograde motions.
    C.) much larger than Copernicus had envisioned.
    D.) being on equants instead of epicycles.
    E.) elliptical, not circular.
    E
  18. Into how many constellations is the celestial sphere divided?

    A.) 12
    B.) 44
    C.) 57
    D.) 88
    E.) 110
    D
  19. How much stronger is the gravitational pull of the Sun on Earth, at 1 AU, than it is on Saturn at 10 AU?

    A.) 10
    B.) 100
    C.) 25
    D.) 250
    E.) 5
    B
  20. You note that a particular star is directly overhead. It will be directly overhead again in

    A.) 24 hours 4 minutes.
    B.) 12 hours.
    C.) 1 hour.
    D.) 23 hours 56 minutes.
    E.) 24 hours.
    D
  21. The force of gravity varies with the

    A.) product of the two masses.
    B.) inverse of the distance separating the two bodies.
    C.) inverse square of the distance separating the two bodies.
    D.) Both A and B are correct.
    E.) Both A and C are correct.
    E
  22. The celestial sphere is divided into ___ modern constellations.
    88
  23. If the distance between two asteroids is doubled, the gravitational force they exert on each other will

    A.) be one fourth as great.
    B.) will be 1/16 as great.
    C.) be four times greater.
    D.) be half as great.
    E.) also be doubled.
    A
  24. True or false:

    Constellations are close clusters of stars, all at about the same distance from the Sun.
    False
  25. Galileo Galilei was the first scientist to perform experiments in order to test his ideas. He was also the first astronomer to systematically observe the skies with a telescope. Galileo made four key observations that challenged the widely accepted philosophical beliefs on which the geocentric model was based, thus providing support for the heliocentric model. From the following list of observations, which are the key observations made by Galileo that challenged widespread philosophical beliefs about the solar system?
    Check all that apply.

    A.) The Moon has a smooth, featureless surface.
    B.) Jupiter has orbiting moons.
    C.) Neptune has orbiting moons.
    D.) Uranus has a ring system.
    E.) The Moon has mountains, valleys, and craters.
    F.) The Sun has sunspots and rotates on its axis.
    Venus is only seen in a crescent phase.
    G.) Venus goes through a full set of phases.
    B, E, F, H
  26. Johannes Kepler used decades of Tycho Brahe's observational data to formulate an accurate description of planetary motion. Kepler spent almost 30 years of his life trying to develop a simple description of planetary motion based on a heliocentric model that fit Tycho's data. What conclusion did Kepler eventually come to that revolutionized the heliocentric model of the solar system?
    A.) Kepler confirmed that Venus orbits the Sun.
    B.) Kepler explained retrograde motion.
    C.) Kepler determined that the planetary orbits are elliptical.
    D.) Kepler confirmed that the planetary orbits are circular.
    C
  27. Astronomers have made many observations since the days of Galileo and Kepler to confirm that the Sun really is at the center of the solar system, and that the planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits. Which observation(s) could you make today that Galileo and Kepler could not have made to confirm that the heliocentric model is correct?
    Check all that apply.

    A.) Stellar parallax in nearby stars
    B.) Transit of an extrasolar planet
    C.) Orbital periods of Jupiter's moons
    D.) Doppler shifts in stellar spectra of nearby stars
    A, B, D
  28. Which of these observations of Galileo refuted Ptolemy's epicycles?

    A.) the rotation of sunspots across the Sun's surface
    B.) the complete cycle of Venus' phases
    C.) the revolution of Jupiter's moons around it
    D.) the craters on the Moon
    E.) the visibility of many more stars with the telescope
    B
  29. True or false:

    According to Copernicus, retrograde motion occurs at opposition for the outer planets.
    True
  30. In the summer we observe different constellations than in the winter. This is because ________.

    A.) the direction of Earth's axis precesses
    B.) Earth has moved to the other side of its orbit
    C.) Earth is round
    D.) Earth's axis is tilted to its orbit around the Sun
    B
  31. True or false:

    Among Galileo's discoveries with his telescope were sunspots.
    True
  32. When a planet's orbit takes it closest to the Sun, it's called

    A.) perihelion.
    B.) aphelion.
    C.) vernal equinox.
    D.) crossing the ecliptic.
    E.) none of these; a planet's distance from the Sun never changes.
    A
  33. True or false:

    Kepler relied heavily on the telescopic observations of Galileo in developing his laws of planetary motion.
    False
  34. The 26,000 year cycle that changes the poles and equinoxes is called

    A.) revolution.
    B.) the Earth's rotation.
    C.) a retrograde loop.
    D.) precession.
    E.) regression.
    D
  35. What physical property of Earth gives rise to the seasons?
    A.) The variation in its distance from the Sun
    B.) The precession of its axis
    C.) Changes in the day-night cycle
    D.) The tilt of its rotation axis to the plane of its orbit
    D
  36. True or false:

    The solar day is longer than the sidereal day.
    True
  37. Night and day have approximately equal length at what time or times of the year?

    A.) Winter equinox
    B.) Summer equinox
    C.) Summer solstice
    D.) Vernal and autumnal equinoxes
    E.) Winter solstice
    D
  38. Which of these was NOT seen telescopically by Galileo?

    A.) stellar parallax
    B.) Venus' phase cycle
    C.) craters and mare on the Moon
    D.) sunspots
    E.) Four moons around Jupiter
    A
  39. True or false:

    In the sky, declination is measured in degrees north or south of the celestial equator.
    True
  40. True or false:

    A planet (or comet) will speed up as it approaches the Sun
    True
  41. True or false:

    Galileo's observations of the entire phase cycle of Venus proved that Ptolemy's epicycles could not be correct in keeping Venus between us and the Sun.
    True
  42. True or false:
    In the scientific method, it is not necessary to test your theory.
    False
  43. The interval from new Moon to first quarter is about a(n)

    A.) year.
    B.) day.
    C.) hour.
    D.) week.
    E.) month.
    D
  44. True or false:

    The parallax shift for all stars is very small.
    True
  45. True or False:

    Right ascension in the sky is very similar to latitude on the Earth.
    False
  46. When the Moon is directly opposite the Sun in the sky, its phase is
    A.) new.
    B.) first or third quarter.
    C.) waxing or waning crescent
    D.) waxing or waning gibbous.
    E.) full.
    E
  47. Galileo found the rotation period of the Sun was approximately

    A.) a year.
    B.) a month.
    C.) a week.
    D.) three months.
    E.) a day.
    B
  48. True or false:

    The seasons are caused by the precession of Earth's axis.
    False
  49. You note that a particular star is directly overhead. It will be directly overhead again in
    A.) 1 hour.
    B.) 12 hours.
    C.) 23 hours 56 minutes.
    D.) 24 hours.
    E.) 24 hours 4 minutes.
    C
  50. From the horizon to the observer's zenith is an angle of

    A.) 0.0 degrees for an observer at the Earth's north pole.
    B.) 23.5 degrees for observers at the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
    C.) 66.5 degrees for everyone on the Earth.
    D.) 90 degrees for everyone on the Earth.
    E.) 30 degrees for observers at a latitude of 30 degrees North.
    D
  51. In the summer we observe different constellations than in the winter. This is because ________.

    A.) Earth is round
    B.) Earth's axis is tilted to its orbit around the Sun
    C.) Earth has moved to the other side of its orbit
    D.) the direction of Earth's axis precesses
    C
  52. True or false:

    Right ascension in the sky is very similar to latitude on the Earth.
    False
  53. True or false:

    The closest terrestrial analog to hours of right ascension is angle of longitude.
    True
  54. True or false:

    The celestial sphere is divided into 88 modern constellations.
    True
  55. Into how many constellations is the celestial sphere divided?

    A.) 44
    B.) 57
    C.) 12
    D.) 88
    E.) 110
    D
  56. The fact that the Earth has moved along its orbit in the time it took to rotate once is the reason for

    A.) the difference between solar and sidereal time.
    B.) precession.
    C.) seasons.
    D.) Earth's 23.5-degree tilt.
    E.) the position of the Celestial Equator.
    A
  57. A fatal flaw with Ptolemy's model is its inability to predict the observed phases of

    A.) Mars and Jupiter.
    B.) Jupiter and Saturn.
    C.) Mercury and Venus.
    D.) the Moon in its monthly cycle.
    E.) the Sun during an eclipse.
    C
Author:
SeanHatfield
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314966
Card Set:
Astronomy HW#01 Charting the Heavens
Updated:
2016-01-30 21:00:49
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Astronomy Wallin
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Astronomy Homework 01. Charting the Heavens. Dr. Wallin. Sean Hatfield
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