CHAPTER 2

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  1. Matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. Mass
    the amount of matter in an object
  3. Weight
    the gravitational force acting on an object of given mass
  4. Atom
    smallest particle of an element that has a chemical characteristics of that element
  5. Element
    the simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties; composed of atoms of only one kind
  6. Compound
    the simplest type of matter composed of atoms of different kind
  7. Neutrons
    no electrical charge
  8. Protons
    one positive charge
  9. Electrons
    one negative charge
  10. Nucleus
    formed by protons and neutrons
  11. Atomic Number
    equal to number of protons in each atom, which is equal to the number of electrons
  12. Mass Number
    number of protons plus number of neutrons
  13. Isotopes
    two or more forms of same element with the same number of protons and electrons but different neutron number
  14. Chemical bonds
    occurs when outermost (valence) electrons of the cloud are transferred and/or shared between atoms
  15. Ionic bond
    non-shared bond complete transfer. taken by the octet rule ex. sodium chloride
  16. Non-polar covalent bond
    an equal sharing of (valence) electrons between two atoms ex. methane gas
  17. Polar covalent bond
    an UN-equal sharing of electrons between two atoms ex. water
  18. Hydrogen bond
    bond found between water molecules ex. water molecule
  19. Energy: capacity to do work
    • Potential Energy: energy stored 
    • Kinetic Energy: moving
    • Heat Energy: release energy
  20. Enzymactic
    a reaction that requires enzymes
  21. Enzymes
    • biological catalyst that increases a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy without being consumed in the final product
    • [belongs to protein]
  22. Human Physiological pH
    • 7.35-7.45
    • Less than 7.35
    • Greater than 7.45
    • Physiological: Normal
    • Pathological: Disease
    • Acid
    • Base 
    • Buffer
    • Human physiological pH 
    • Acidosis
    • Alkalosis
  23. Nucleic acids
    nucleotides nuceloACID
  24. Proteins
    amino acids (20). the only difference is the "side chains".
  25. Lipids
    • triglycerides
    • [steroids belongs to lipids]
  26. Carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  27. Organic Chemistry
    • Carbohydrates: monosaccharides
    • Lipids: triglycerides 
    • Proteins: amino acids (20)
    • Nucleic Acids: nucleotides
  28. Proteins
    20 amino acids. The only difference is the "side chains".
  29. Quaternary structure
    hemoglobin is a quaternary structure
  30. Tertiary structure
    combined sheet and helix structures
  31. Secondary structure
    sheet and helix structures
  32. Primary structure
    the linear sequence of the amino acid is the primary structure
  33. Structures of protein
    • Primary structure: the linear sequence of the amino acid is the primary structure
    • Secondary structure: sheet and helix structures
    • Tertiary structure: combined sheet and helix structures
    • Quaternary structure: hemoglobin is a quaternary structure
  34. Pyrimidine base
    • Cytosine
    • Uracil
    • Thymine
  35. Purine bases
    • Guanine
    • Adenine
  36. Transcription
    DNA-->RNA
  37. Translation
    RNA-->Protein
  38. DNA
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • DNA
    • C=G
    • A=T
  39. RNA
    • Ribonucleic acid
    • RNA:
    • C=G
    • A=U
  40. Hemoglobin
    is a quaternary structure

Card Set Information

Author:
roadcrush
ID:
315209
Filename:
CHAPTER 2
Updated:
2016-02-22 06:48:29
Tags:
Chemical Basis Life
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Description:
Anatomy/Physiology I
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