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What is personality?
Everybody has things about themselves that makes them different and similar to other people
Traits people share or do not share with other people
What does personality try to explain?
why people are different and similar from one another
Does everyone have something in common with all people?
What is a personologist?
- someone who studies personality
- They find the characteristics you find in the human species
What does a personologist study?(3 things)
- 1. study introvert and extrovert
- 2. if you are born that way, through social learning
- 3. the level of introvert or extrovert
Who was the first person that studied personality?
What are the two approaches of studying personality Gordon Allport came up with?
- 1. Idiographic
- 2. Nomothetic
What is the idiographic approach?
views that everyone is unique
What is a way of studying in the idiographic approach?
- looking at the biography/autobiography of an individual
- no one will have the same
What is the problem with the idiographic approach?
it cannot be employed scientifically because it is too detailed and preoccupied
What is the nomothetic approach?
- they believe that people should be put into groups, categories
- Not focused on the individual self
Another name for the nomothetic approach is?
the scientific approach
What does the nomothetic approach find?
What tests determine your level of conscientiousness?
What is an integrity test?
- taking a test on your thoughts of certain situations
- based on integrity, honesty
- mostly given by jobs
Most contemporary psychologists who identify themselves as personologists believe that?
the field of personality should viewed and studied as a scientific discipline
What is instinctive behavior?
- response that has been programmed into the species biologically
- stimulus triggering a response
What did John Locke believe about people?
- when people were born they were a tabula rasa=blank slate
- environment will define who you are
What does tabula rasa mean?
Behaviorist agree with whose belief of people?
What is an interactionist?
- they believe that heredity and the environment play a part in making someones personality
- mostly social interaction
What are the five things theories should be?
- 1. comprehensive
- 2. parisimonious
- 3. Empirical translatability
- 4. empirical testability
- 5. empirical validity
what is meant by a theory being comprehensive?
a theory that explains everything that is relevant with respect to the phenomenon under study, all aspects of human behavior
What is meant by a theory being parisomonious?
the theory is simple
what is the law of parsimony?
in science is that if two or more competing but equally powerful explanations are available for a phenomenon, the preferred explanation is the simplest one, least complex
What is meant with a theory being empirical translatable?
means that one should be able to specify means by which to operationally define the constructs identified within the framework of the theory
one should be able to measure the concepts identified in the theory, so that others can be able to measure it
be testable and measurable
what theory lacks empirical translatability?
the psychoanalytic theory
What is meant by a theory being empirical testability?
a theory should make specific predictions that can be evaluated by anyone who is trained in the discipline
What is meant by a theory being empirical validity?
means that a theory has been demonstrated to be correct
what is monozygotic?
what is dizygotic?
what is the difference between shared environment and nonshared environment?
in shared both individuals are exposed to the same conditions as in same household. nonshared one being exposed to aggression by parents
what is concordance?
agreement and consistency
what is discordance?
disagreement not consistent
what is eugenics?
what is zenophobia?
having a fear of people different from you (happens with eugenics)
Who was sir francis gordon?
first to suggest the lexical method
what is taxonomy?
- classifying and categorizing traits of personality
- nomathetic approach