Back to Basics

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  1. Species
    order second, lowercase, italicized or underlined
  2. Genus
    order first, uppercase, italicized or underlined
  3. first to described live microorganisms
    Anton von Leeuwenhoek
  4. Antibiotics
    Alexander Fleming
  5. microorganisms are present in the air (no spontaneous generation)
    Louis Pasteur
  6. discovered that living things are made of cells
    Robert Hooke
  7. vaccination
    Edward Jenner
  8. Proved that a specific microbe causes a specific diseases
    Robert Koch
  9. study of bacteria
    Bacteriology
  10. study of fungus
    Mycology
  11. study of protozoa and parasitic worms
    Paristology
  12. study of immunity
    Immunology
  13. study of viruses
    Virology
  14. study of an organism's genes
    Genomics
  15. DNA made from two different sources
    Recombinant DNA
  16. the study of how microbes inherit traits
    Microbial Genetics
  17. the study of how DNA directs protein synthesis
    Molecular Biology
  18. microbes normally present in and on the human body
    Normal microbiota (or flora)
  19. ability of body to ward off diseases
    Resistance
  20. Microbes attach to solid surfaces and grow into masses
    Biofilms
  21. new disease and diseases increasing in incidence
    Emerging infectious diseases (EIM)
  22. One circular chromosome, not in a membrane
    No histones
    No organelles
    Bacteria: peptidoglycan cell walls
    Archaea: pseudomurein cell walls
    Binary fission
    Prokaryote
  23. Paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane Histones
    Organelles
    Polysaccharide cell walls
    Mitotic spindle
    Eukaryote
  24. Staphyl (Prokaryote Shape)
    cluster of cells
  25. Coccus (Prokaryote Shape)
    spherical shaped
  26. Strepto (Prokaryote Shape)
    chain of cells
  27. Diplo (Prokaryote Shape)
    paired cells
  28. Vibrio (Prokaryote Shape)
    bent shaped
  29. Eukaryote Def.
    larger and more complex type of cell with a nucleus and organelles
  30. Prokaryote Def.
    smaller and simpler type of cells with no nucleus or organelles
  31. Spirillium (Prokaryote Shape)
    spiral shaped
  32. Bacillus (Prokaryote Shape)
    rod shaped
  33. ability of an organism to move by itself
    Motility
  34. Rotate (clockwise, counterclockwise) to push the cell
    Flagellum movement
  35. Move toward or away from stimul
    Taxis
  36. In spirochetes Anchored at one end of a cell Rotation causes cell to move
    Axial Filaments (aka “endoflagella”)
  37. Facilitate transfer of DNA from one cell to another, Twitching motility, Gliding motility
    Pili
  38. The Cell Wall
    • Major function: prevent osmotic lysis
    • Antibiotics interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis
    • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria) Polymer of disaccharide
  39. Cell Wall Def.
    exterior protective layer made of peptidoglycan
  40. short extensions for attachment
    Frimbae
  41. Extracellular polysaccharide layer that allows cell to attach
    Glycocalyx
  42. Gram-positive Cell Wall
    • Thick peptidoglycan
    • Teichoic acids
    • 2-ring basal body
    • Disrupted by lysozyme
    • Penicillin sensitive
  43. Gram-negative Cell Wall
    • Thin peptidoglycan
    • Outer membrane
    • Periplasmic space
    • 4-ring basal body
    • Endotoxin
    • Tetracycline sensitive
  44. Wall-less Gram-positive cell due to Lysozyme digesting disaccharide in peptidoglycan
    Protoplast
  45. Partially destroyed Gram-negative cell wall  due to Lysozyme digesting disaccharide in peptidoglycan
    Spheroplast
  46. wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes
    L forms
  47. Passive movement of H20 across a selectively permeable membrane
    Osmosis
  48. No net movement of water
    Isotonic
  49. Water movies into the cell which causes to burst (osmotic lysis)
    Hypotonic
  50. Water moves out of the cell which shrinks (plasmolysis)
    Hypertonic
  51. Coloring the microbe with a dye that emphasizes certain structure
    Staining
  52. A thin film of a solution of microbes on a slide
    Smear
  53. the chromophore is a cation
    Basic dye
  54. the chromophore is an anion
    Acidic dye
  55. Staining the background instead of the cell
    Negative staining
  56. Differential stain used to distinguish gram + and – infections
    Gram stain
  57. Differential stain used to identify mycobacteria infections
    Acid fast stain
  58. Thin layer of peptidoglycan with waxy mycolic acid (mycobacteria)
    Acid fast cell wall
  59. Thick layer of peptidoglycan and no lipopolysaccharide
    Gram postive cell wall
  60. Thin layer of peptidoglycan with outer lipopolysaccharide
    Gram negative cell wall
  61. Semipermeable phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cytoplasm
    Plasma Membrane
  62. Area of cell that contains the circular chromosome
    Nucleoid
  63. Movement of solutes through membrane proteins from high to low
    Facilitated diffusion
  64. Specialized membranes for photosynthesis
    Thylakoids
  65. Movement of solutes directly across membrane from high to low
    Simple diffusion
  66. Smaller prokaryote enzyme used to make proteins
    70S Ribosome
  67. Movement of solutes through membrane proteins from low to high with energy
    Active transport
  68. Dormant and resistant reproductive structure
    Endospore
  69. Passive transport
    Simple diffusion, facilitative diffusion, osmosis
  70. Substances inside the cell but outside the nucleus
    Cytoplasm
  71. Fluid portion of cytoplasm
    Cytosol
  72. Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
    Cytoskeleton
  73. Membrane formation and secretion
    Golgi complex
  74. Digestive enzymes
    Lysosome
  75. Brings food into cells and provides support
    Vacuole
  76. Lipid production
    Smooth ER
  77. Protein production
    Rough ER
  78. Host that sexual reproduction happens in
    Definitive host
  79. Kingdom for insects
    Animalia
  80. Arthropods that carry disease
    Vector
  81. Phylum for insects
    Arthropoda
  82. Harbors the parasite for a short time period
    Intermediate host
  83. Class of fleas (Xenopsylla), lice (Pedicules), and flies with 6 legs
    Insecta
  84. Class of mites (Sarcoptes) and ticks (Ixodes) with 8 legs
    Arachnida
  85. Male and female reproductive organs in the same animal
    Dioecious
  86. Contain a complete digestive system with a mouth and anus
    Roundworm
  87. Separate male and female individuals
    Monoecious
  88. Phylum of helminthes that is round and includes pinworms (Enterobius), Ascaris, hookworms (Ancylostoma), threadworms (Trichinella), and whipworms (Trichuris)
    Nematoda
  89. Phylum of helminthes that is flattened and includes tapeworms (Class Cestoda) and flukes (Class Trematoda)
    Flatworms
  90. Phylum of helminthes that is round and segmented and includes the leech (Hirudinea)
    Annelida
  91. Contain an incomplete digestive system with one opening
    Platyhelminthes
  92. Vegetative (feeding) stage of the protozoan lifecycle
    Trophozoite
  93. Sexually transmitted Parabasalid with tufted flagella
    Trichonomas
  94. Mode of protozoan sexual reproduction that involves fusion
    Conjugation
  95. Blood borne Euglenozoan parasite with a flagella that is transmitted by the tsetse fly
    Trypanosoma
  96. Hardy, dormant, and resistant stage of the protozoan lifecycle
    Cyst
  97. Diplomonad intestinal parasite with an axoneme and two nuclei that forms cysts
    Giardia
  98. Superkingdom of protozoa that includes Diplomonads, Parabasalids, and Euglenozoa
    Excavata
  99. Mode of protozoan asexual reproduction similar to cell division
    Schizogony
  100. Small ameboid Plasmodium trophozoite stage produced by schizogony in liver cells that infects red blood cells
    Merozoite
  101. Amoebozoan intestinal parasite that moves by pseudopodia with a cyst that contains four nuclei
    Entamoeba
  102. Male and female sexual cells of Plasmodium that form in the human bloodstream and unite to make zygotes in mosquitos
    Gametocyte
  103. Superkingdom of protozoa that includes Apicomplexans, Dinoflagellates, and Ciliates
    Chromalveolata
  104. A motile sporelike stage of Plasmodium that is typically the infective agent introduced into a host
    Sporozoite
  105. Ciliate intestinal parasite with cilia for movement that contains a distinctive macronucleus
    Balantidum
  106. Apicomplexan intracellular parasite transmitted by mosquitos, causes malaria, and enters cells using an apical complex
    Plasmodium
  107. Algae with a glassy cell wall that form several crystalline shapes
    Diatoms
  108. Photoautrophic organisms that lack the roots and stems of plants
    Algae
  109. Algae with a cell wall of cellulose plates and a groove for a flagellum that causes toxic red tide blooms
    Dinoflagellates
  110. Unicellular, eukaryotic organisms that are typically ingestive or absorptive heterotrophs including several medically important parasites
    Protozoa
  111. Unicellular fungi that are identified by biochemical tests
    Yeast
  112. Vegetative stage made up of a filamentous mass of cells
    Mycelium
  113. Haploid nucleus of a donor cells penetrates a recipient cell making a cell with more than one nucleus
    Plasmogamy
  114. Fusion of the nuclei in a cell to form a diploid zygote
    Karyogamy
  115. Long filaments of cells that make up the fungus body
    Hyphae
  116. Fungi that only produce asexual spores
    Anamorphs
  117. Fungi that produce sexual and asexual spores
    Teleomorphs
  118. Kingdom of mostly multicellular eukaryotes that are chemoheterotrophs and acquire food by absorption
    Fungi
  119. Reproductive cells of fungi that are usually dispersed through the
    air
    Spores
  120. Club fungi that produce mushrooms and make basidiospores for sexual reproduction in a basidium
    • Basidiomycota
    • Basidiomycotina
  121. Mold that forms conidiophores and asci to produce asexual conidia spores and sexual ascospores
    Aspergillus
  122. Black bread mold that forms zygopsores and sporangia to produce sexual zygospores asexual sporangiospores
    Rhizopus
  123. Unusual eukaryotes that lack mitochondria and survive as intracellular parasites
    Microsporidia
  124. Small mushroom that forms basidia to produce sexual basidiospores
    Coprinus
  125. Unicellular Ascomycete yeast that is an opportunistic parasite
    Saccharomyces
  126. Saprophytic molds that make zygospores for sexual reproduction
    • Zygomycota
    • Zygomycotina
  127. Sac fungi including some molds and yeast that make an ascus reproductive structure containing ascospores
    • Ascomycota
    • Ascomycotina
Author:
TopShot102
ID:
315472
Card Set:
Back to Basics
Updated:
2016-02-08 22:21:05
Tags:
biology
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Description:
Biology Test 1
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