Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Flashcards - Set 3

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  1. Eukaryotic microbes (Protozoa, algae, fungi) range in size from about:
    10-100 μm
  2. Prokarytoes (Bacteria, archaea) range in size from about:
    0.4-10 μm
  3. Put the following microscopes in order of lowest to highest power of range of resolution.
    - Scanning electron microscopy
    - Atomic force microscopy
    - Human eye
    - Transmission electron microscopy
    - X-ray crystallography
    - Light microscopy
    • 1. Human eye
    • 2. Light microscopy
    • 3. Scanning electron
    • 4. Transmission electron
    • 5. Atomic force
    • 6. X-ray crystallography

    Note: Scanning and Transmission electron can go up to the same power of resolution, but Scanning's lower range is much lower.
  4. Name the bacteria shape: Filamentous rods
    bacilli
  5. Name the bacteria shape: spheres
    cocci
  6. Name the bacteria shape:unique bacterial shape that evlolved in only one taxon. A tightly coiled spiral.
    spirochette
  7. Range of visible light
    400-750 nm
  8. Put the following waves in order from longest to shortest length.
    - Visible
    - Microwaves
    - Gamma rays
    - Ultraviolet
    - Radio waves
    - Infrared
    - X-rays
    • 1. Radio
    • 2. Microwaves
    • 3. Infrared
    • 4. Visible
    • 5. Ultraviolet
    • 6. X-rays
    • 7. Gamma rays
  9. The smallest distance by which two objects can be separated and still be distinguished
    Resolution
  10. Resolution of the human retina
    ~150 μm
  11. The ability to determine the presence of an object
    Detection
  12. An increase in the apparent size of an image to resolve smaller separations between objects
    Magnification
  13. The photon's energy is acquired by the absorbing object
    Absorption
  14. The light's wavefront bounces off the surface of an object
    Reflection
  15. The bending of light as it enters a substance that slows its speed
    Refraction
  16. Occurs when the light's wavefront interacts with an object smaller than the wavelength of light
    Scattering
  17. _______ by a lens, requires the bending of light rays, as in refraction.
    Magnification
  18. When light rays enter a parabolic lens, parallel rays each bend at an angle such that all of the rays meet at a certain point, called the:
    focal point
  19. It is ______, not magnification, that limits the ability of what we can see with a microscope.
    resolution
  20. Magnification without increasing detail is called:
    empty magnification
  21. The resolution of detail in microscopy is limited by the _____ _____ of light.
    wave nature
  22. Light rays actually form wavefronts, which undergo _______, which can be constructive or destructive.
    interference
  23. Name four things that resolution depends on.
    • 1. Wavelength of light (smaller than object)
    • 2. Contrast between object and surroundings
    • 3. Lens quality and magnifying power
    • 4. Position of the focal plane
  24. Name the labeled parts of this microscope.
    Image Upload
    • A: Light source
    • B: Diaphragm
    • C: Condenser
    • D: Stage
    • E: Objectives on revolving nosepiece
    • F: Eyepiece
    • F: Focusing knob
  25. What's wrong with the focus?
    Image Upload
    Too close to lens; image is blurred
  26. What's wrong with the focus?
    Image Upload
    In focus; image appears sharp.
  27. What's wrong with the focus?
    Image Upload
    Too far beyond focal point; image appears "empty" with interference rings
  28. What's wrong with the focus?
    Image Upload
    Object extends through focal planes
  29. What kind of stain is methylene blue?
    Simple
  30. Name the differential stain: bacteria retain the crystal violet stain because of their thicker cell wall
    Gram stain
  31. Gram-_____ appear purple because they ____ the crystal violet stain.
    positive, retain
  32. Gram-______ bacterial appear pink because they _____ the cyrstal violet stain.
    negative, don't retain
  33. Name the differential stain: Carbolfuchsin used to stain Mycobacterium species
    Acid-fast stain
  34. Name the differential stain: malachite green used to detect spores of Bacillus and Clostridium
    Spore stain
  35. Name the differential stain: colors the background, which makes capsules more visible
    Negative stain
  36. In fluorescence microscopy, the specimen absorbs light of a specific wavelength called the:
    excitation wavelength
  37. In flurescence microscopy, the specimen emits light at a longer wavelength called the:
    emission wavelength
  38. ____-____ microscopy enables microbes to be visualized as halos of bright light against darkness.
    Dark-field
  39. Name the type of microscopy: 
    - Superimposes refracted light and transmitted light shifted out of phase
    - Difference in refractive index are seen as pattern of light and dark
    - Used to view live cells and organelles
    Phase-contrast microscopy
  40. Name the type of microscopy:
    Image Upload
    Fluorescence microscopy
  41. Name the type of microscopy:
    Image Upload
    Dark-field microscopy
  42. Name the type of microscopy:
    Image Upload
    Phase-Contrast microscopy
  43. Name the type of microscopy:
    - Sample coated with heavy metal to absorb electrons
    - Lenses are magnets, needs vacuum
    Electron microscopy
  44. Name the type of microscopy:
    - Electrons pass through the specimen
    - Embedded in a polymer for cutting with microtome (or sprayed onto a copper grid)
    - Reveals internal structures
    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
  45. Name the type of microscopy:
    - Electrons scan the specimen surface
    - Reveals external features in 3D
    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  46. Name the type of microscopy:
    - Specimen in flash-frozen
    - Suspended in water and frozen rapidly in a refrigerant
    cryo-EM or electron cryomicroscopy
  47. Name the type of microscopy:
    - avoids the need to physically slice the sample for thin-section TEM
    - images are combined digitally to visualize the entire object in 3D
    Cryo-electron tomography, or electron cryotomography
  48. Name the type of microscopy:
    - enables nanoscale observation of cell suraces
    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM)
  49. Name the type of microscopy:
    - example of SPM
    - measures the van der Waals forces between electron shells of adjacent atoms of the cell surface and the sharp tip
    - can be used to observe live bacteria in water or exposed to air (unlike electron microscopy)
    atomic force microscope (AFM)
  50. Name the type of microscopy: employs various stains
    Bright-field
  51. Name the type of microscopy: employs fluorophores for labeling
    Fluorescence
  52. Name the type of microscopy: detects unresolved objects
    Dark-field
  53. Name the type of microscopy: exploits differences in refractive index
    Phase-contrast
  54. Electron microscope that provides internal details in 2D
    TEM
  55. Electron microscope that provides external detail in 3D
    SEM
  56. Microbes include members of which of the following groups?
    A) Bacteria, animals, protozoa, fungi
    B) Archaea, viruses, plants, fungi
    C) Bacteria, archaea, protozoa, plants
    D) Bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses
    D) Bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Lithrotrophs are ogranisms that feed on ______, and were discovered by _____.
    A) inorganic material; Sergei Winogradski
    B) inorganic material; Alexander Fleming
    C) organic material; Sergei Winogradski
    D) organic material; Alexander Fleming
    A) inorganic material; Sergei Winogradski
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Koch's postulates include all of the following EXCEPT:
    A) The pathogen must be shown to contain toxins.
    B) The isolated pathogen must be used to infect a healthy host.
    C) A pure culture of the pathogen must be obtained.
    D) Healthy individuals infected with the isolated suspected pathogen must get sick with the disease.
    E) The pathogen must be found in every individual suffering from the disease.
    A) The pathogen must be shown to contain toxins.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

Card Set Information

Author:
tulipyoursweety
ID:
315528
Filename:
Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Flashcards - Set 3
Updated:
2016-02-08 04:07:06
Tags:
Microbiology
Folders:
microbiology
Description:
Microscopy
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