Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Flashcards - Set 4

The flashcards below were created by user tulipyoursweety on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Name the bond type: Sharing of electrons
    covalent
  2. Name the bond type: Electrostatic attraction between anion and cation
    Ionic
  3. Name the bond type: Electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen bonded to a nitrogen or oxygen and a second nitrogen or oxygen
    Hydrogen
  4. Name the bond type: Electrostatic attraction between temporary, shifting electron clouds
    Van der Waals
  5. Fill in the words for the labeled arrows.
    Image Upload
    • A) Condensation
    • B) Hydrolysis
  6. Most bacteria share fundamental traits:
    - ____, _____ outer envelope
    - _____ genome
    - ______ coordinated cell functions
    • - thick, complex
    • - compact
    • - tightly
  7. _____, like bacteria, are prokaryotes.
    Archaea
  8. Archaea have _____ membrane and envelope structures.
    unique
  9. Name the part in the bacterial cell:
    - consists of a gel-like network
    - highly structured, like a web
    cytoplasm
  10. Name the part in the bacterial cell:
    - encloses the cytoplasm
    - protects cell
    - homeostasis
    cell membrane
  11. Name the part in the bacterial cell:
    - covers the cell membrane
    cell wall
  12. Name the part in the bacterial cell:
    - non-membrane-bound area of the cytoplasm that contains the chromosome in the form of looped coils
    nucleoid
  13. Name the part in the bacterial cell:
    - external helical filament whose rotary motor propels the cells
    flagellum
  14. Techniques to break up cells that allow subcellular parts to remain intact.
    Cell fractionation
  15. Cell fractionation techniques include: (Name 4)
    • 1. Mild detergent analysis
    • 2. Sonication
    • 3. Enzymes
    • 4. Mechanical disruption
  16. A key tool of subcellular fractionation is the:
    ultracentrifuge
  17. An approach that is complementary to cell fractionation is _____ ______.
    genetic analysis
  18. In genetic analysis, mutant strains might be selected for:
    loss of a given function
  19. In genetic analysis, a selected strain may be _____ ______ as to lose or alter a gene.
    intentionally mutated
  20. In genetic analysis, a selected strain may be constructed with "_____ ____" fused to a gene encoding a protein of interest.
    reporter genes
  21. Name 5 common chemical components that all cells share:
    • 1. Water
    • 2. Essential ions
    • 3. Small organic molecules
    • 4. Macromolecules
    • 5. Lipids
  22. The structure that defines the existence of a cell is the ____ ______.
    cell membrane
  23. Membrane proteins serve numerous functions, including:
    a) Structural _____
    b) _______ of environmental signals
    c) Secretion of _____ factors and ______ signals
    d) ____ transport and _____ storage
    • a) support
    • b) detection
    • c) virulence, communication
    • d) ion, energy
  24. Membrane proteins have ______ and _____ regions that lock the protein in the membrane
    hydrophilic, hydrophobic
  25. Membrane have approximately equal parts of ______ and _____.
    phospholipids, proteins
  26. A ______ consists of glycerol with ester links to two fatty acids and a phosphoryl head group. It may have a side chain.
    phospholipid
  27. The two layers of phospholipids in the bilayer are called:
    leaflets
  28. Double bonds in the phosolipid side chains make the membrane more _____.
    fluid
  29. Membranes also include ____ molecules that fill gaps between hydrocarbon chains.
    planar
  30. In eukaryotic membranes, the reinforcing agents are sterols, such as:
    cholestrol
  31. In bacterial membranes, the reinforcing agents are:
    hopanoids, or hopanes
  32. Archaea membranes have _____ links between glycerol and fatty acids.
    ether
  33. Archaea membrane hydrocarbon chains are brached:
    terpenoids
  34. Small uncharged molecules, such as O2 and CO2 easily permeate the membrane by ____.
    diffusion.
  35. Water tends to diffuse across the membrane in a process called _____.
    osmosis.
  36. Weak ____ and weak ____ exist partly in an uncharged form that can diffuse across the membrane and change the pH of the cell.
    acids, bases
  37. Polar molecules and charged molecules require transport through specific protein ______.
    transporters
  38. Name the type of transport: molecules move along their concentration gradient
    Passive transport
  39. Name the type of transport: molecules move against their concentration gradient
    active transport
  40. Which of the following statements about the size of microbes is FALSE?
    A) Eukaryotic microbes tend to have a size of 10-100 μm
    B) Prokaryotic microbes tend to have a size that is less than 10 μm
    C) A few bacterial species are large enough to be seen by the unaided eye
    D) Choose this answer if all the above are true.
    D) Choose this answer if all the above are true.
  41. You are observing a bacterium using a 10X ocular lens and a 45X objective lens. What would the total magnification be?
    A) 450X
    B) 145X
    C) 45X
    D) 10X
    E) Need more information
    A) 450X
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. In fluorescence microscopy, the specimen absorbs light and then re-emits it at a _____ energy and thus, a _____ wavelength.
    A) lower; shorter
    B) lower; longer
    C) higher; shorter
    D) higher; longer
    B) lower; longer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Bacterial phospholipids are _____ linked, while those of archaea contain _____ linkages.
    ester, ether
Author:
tulipyoursweety
ID:
315529
Card Set:
Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Flashcards - Set 4
Updated:
2016-02-08 04:50:23
Tags:
microbiology
Folders:
microbiology
Description:
Biological Molecules, Cell Structure and Function
Show Answers: