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  1. What are the three components of an attitude?
    Cognition, affect, and behaviour are closely related.

    • 1. Cognitive = Evaluation
    • "My supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me.  My supervisor is unfair!"

    2. Affective = feeling

    "I dislike my supervisor!"

    3. Behavioural = action

    "I'm looking for other work; i've complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen."
  2. What causes job satisfaction?
    • -Research shows that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction.
    • -Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point.
    • -Personality also plays a role in job satisfaction.
    • -People who have positive core self-evaluations, who believe in their inner worth and basic competence, are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations.
  3. What are implications for managers re: employee job satisfaction?
    • -Pay attention to your employees’ job satisfaction levels as determinants of their performance, turnover, absenteeism,and withdrawal behaviors.
    • -Measure employee job attitudes objectively and at regular intervals in order to determine how employees are reacting to their work.
    • -To raise employee satisfaction, evaluate the fit between the employee’s work interests and the intrinsic parts of his/her job to create work that is challenging and interesting to the individual.
    • -Consider the fact that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.
  4. What is job crafting?
    More recently, ‘‘job crafting’’ has emerged as a theoretical approach that expands perspectives on job design to include proactive changes that employees make to their own jobs.

    • Janitors and Job Crafting
    • The clearest example of job crafting is with the janitors (at minutes :48, 2:56 and 3:25). It was by studying hospital janitors & cleaning staff that Wrzesniewsk, Dutton, and colleague Geleye Debebe first noticed job crafting as a personal meaning-making strategy.These scholars noticed that the janitors they were studying often went out of their way to engage patients in conversation, or even just silent interpersonal interaction. In addition to mopping up dirty floors, emptying garbage cans and cleaning up wastes the employees also comforted patients and visitors, demonstrated a respect for their privacy and an attentiveness to their needs, and even helped them get the nurse when a nurse seemed to be needed.

    • Making work more meaningful
    • Why would janitors make a special effort to converse with patients, especially patients who seemed lonely or scared? Because interacting with the patients helped make their work as cleaners more meaningful. The janitors realized that they could make a difference in the patients’ experiences, and so they learned how to interact with patients in a comforting, human, life-affirming way.

    Janitors who crafted their jobs this way went beyond being cleaners, and became part of the hospital’s team of healers.- 
  5. What are the difference between emotions and moods?
    • Emotions:
    • - Caused by a specific event
    • -Very brief in duration
    • - Specific and numerous in nature
    • -distinct facial expressions
    • -action oriented in nature

    • Moods
    • - Cause is often general and unclear
    • -Last longer than emotions
    • -more general (two main dimensions - positive and  negative)
    • -not indicated by distinct expressions
    • -cognitive in nature
  6. What are the 6 universal emotions?
    • Anger
    • Fear
    • Sadness
    • Happiness
    • Disgust
    • Surprise
  7. How rational are emotions?
    We base our emotions on our perceptions of the events going on in and around us. In turn, our emotions lead us to show one or more patterns of behavior. When something makes you angry, you may lash out, and when something makes you sad, you cry. When you’re experiencing the positive emotions of love you may show affection, and when something strikes you as funny, you laugh.

    Being able to understand and control your emotional responses are key skills that influence your relationships with others. People will stay away from you if you’re constantly expressing negative emotions. You might even put your job security, relationships, and health at risk. Under the wrong circumstances, you could even lose your life, such as expressing road rage.

    Anger is just one potentially destructive emotion, however; there are others far more subtle yet equally powerful in their effects on you. Let’s take the vague sense of intense dislike you may find yourself having toward someone you barely know. It’s hard to pinpoint the source of your annoyance, but you know that something about this person is irksome. To understand this experience, you can start by asking yourself whether it’s the person specifically or someone the personreminds you of who’s the real source of your displeasure. Through the process oftransference(link is external), identified by Freud in his psychoanalytic writings, we project onto other people the feelings we have toward someone else. Traditionally, transference occurs in psychoanalysis when a patient “transfers” her feelings about her father onto the therapist (who may not even be a male).
  8. What is Affective Events Theory (AET) ?
    AET is a psychological model designed to explain the connection between emotions and feelings in the workplace and job performance, job satisfaction and behaviours. AET is underlined by a belief that human beings are emotional and that their behaviour is guided by emotion.



    • The theory begins by recognizing that emotions
    • are a response to an event in the work environment. The work environment
    • includes everything surrounding the job—the variety of tasks and degree of
    • autonomy, job demands, and requirements for expressing emotional labor.
    • This environment creates work events that can be hassles, uplifting events, or
    • both. Examples of hassles are colleagues who refuse to carry their share of work,
    • conflicting directions from different managers, and excessive time pressures.
    • Uplifting events include meeting a goal, getting support from a colleague, and
    • receiving recognition for an accomplishment.63

    • These work events trigger positive or negative emotional reactions, to which employees’ personalities and moods predispose them to respond with greater
    • or lesser intensity. People who score low on emotional stability are more likely to react strongly to negative events. And our emotional response to a given
    • event can change depending on mood. Finally, emotions influence a number of performance and satisfaction variables, such as organizational citizenship
    • behavior, organizational commitment, level of effort, intention to quit, and workplace deviance.




    Tests of affective events theory suggest the following:


    An emotional episode is actually a series of emotional experiences, precipitated by a single event and containing elements of both emotions and mood cycles.

    Current emotions influence job satisfaction at any given time, along with the history of emotions surrounding the event.

    Because moods and emotions fluctuate over time, their effect on performance also fluctuates.



    Emotion-driven behaviors are typically short in duration and of high variability.



    • Because emotions, even positive ones, tend to be incompatible with behaviors required to do a job, they typically have a negative influence on
    • job performance.64
  9. What is emotional intelligence?
    • Emotional intelligence (EI) is a person’s ability to (1) perceive emotions in the self and others, (2) understand the meaning of these emotions, and
    • (3) regulate one’s emotions accordingly in a cascading model, as shown in Exhibit 4-6. People who know their own emotions and are good at reading emotional cues—for instance, knowing why they’re angry and how to express them- selves without violating norms—are most likely to be effective.

    EQ can be developed over time

    It has a direct impact on your leadership and bottom line

    It is a "different way" of being "smart" not correlated with IQ.

    Developing skills to be "effective in the moment": no significant gender differences.






    • everal studies suggest EI plays an important role in job performance. One study that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology
    • found executive MBA students who performed best on a strategic decision making task were more likely to incorporate emotion centers of the brain into their
    • choice process. The students also de-emphasized the use of the more cognitive parts of their brains.69 Another study looked at the successes and failures
    • of 11 U.S. presidents—from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton—and evaluated them on six qualities: communication, organization, political skill, vision,
    • cognitive style, and emotional intelligence.
  10. What is the case for EI?
    • Intuitive Appeal
    • Almost everyone agrees it is good to possess social intelligence. Intuition suggests people who can detect emotions in others, control their own emotions, and handle social interactions well have a powerful leg up in the business world. 


    • EI Predicts Criteria That Matter
    • Evidence suggests a high level of EI means a person will perform well on the job.

    Why emotional Intelligence matters at work


    1)    Better professional relationships Understanding what makes other people tick, and developing positive and harmonious working relationships, is a large part of Emotional intelligence. Improving your EI will enable you to interact and communicate with others more effectively and enhance your professional relationships. 

    2)    Increased personal effectiveness EI is increasingly being regarded as a major key in personal success and by some as being more important than IQ. Being able to manage yourself and others successfully is often a crucial factor in success. 

    3)    Improved thinking skills EI can help you to gain new perspectives on old difficulties, therefore improving your problem solving and decision making abilities. It can also help with developing your strategic thinking capability and your ability to motivate and inspire your team. 

    4)    Better self management EL gives you the tools to become more self aware about your emotions and equips you with the strategies to use your emotions effectively, including the negative ones like anger or sadness. 

    • 5)    Improved leadership capability Leaders with high levels of emotional intelligence have an advantage over their less well-equipped counterparts. EI can help you to develop empathy and understanding about other people and this is crucial to the ability to inspire, influence, motivate, and persuade them in a management or leadership role. 
  11. What is the case against Emotional Intelligence?
    • -EI Researchers do not agree on definitions
    • -EI can't be measured
    • -EI is nothing more than Personality with a different label
  12. Emotional Intelligence includes the ability to...
    • - Be aware of and express emotions
    • - Be aware of others' feelings and establish relationships
    • - Manage and control emotions
    • - Realistically and flexibly cope with immediate situation and solve problems as they arise
    • -Generate positive affect to be sufficiently self-motivated to achieve personal goals
  13. The emotional Intelligence wheel ("flat tire" exercise)- what are the 5 sections?
    Stress Management (Flexibility, stress tolerance, optimism)

    Decision Making
    (Problem solving, reality testing, impulse control)

    Interpersonal
    (Interpersonal relationships, empathy, social responsibility)

    Self-perception
    (self regard, self actualization, emotional self-awareness)

    Self-expression
    (Emotional expression, assertiveness, Independence)
  14. What are the big five traits and what do they affect?
    Emotional Stability  (higher job and life satisfaction; lower stress levels)

    Extroversion (higher performance, enhanced leadership, higher life and job satisfaction)

    • Openness (training performance, enhanced leadership, more adaptable to change)
    •  
    • Agreeableness (higher performance, lower levels of deviant behaviour)

    Conscientiousness (higher performance, enhanced leadership, greater longevity)





    • How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work? Research has found
    • relationships between these personality dimensions and job performance.14 As
    • the authors of the most-cited review put it, “The preponderance of evidence shows that individuals who are dependable, reliable, careful, thorough, able to plan, organized, hardworking, persistent, and achievement-oriented tend to have higher job performance in most if not all occupations.”15 In addition,
    • employees who score higher in conscientiousness develop higher levels of job knowledge, probably because highly conscientious people learn more (a review
    • of 138 studies revealed conscientiousness was rather strongly related to GPA).16
    • Higher levels of job knowledge then contribute to higher levels of job performance. Conscientious individuals who are more interested in learning than in
    • just performing on the job are also exceptionally good at maintaining performance in the face of negative feedback.17 There can be “too much of a good thing,” however, as extremely conscientious individuals typically do not perform better than those who are simply above average in conscientiousness.18




    • Conscientiousness is as important for managers as for front-line employees.
    • As Exhibit 5-1 shows, a study of the personality scores of 313 CEO candidates
    • in private equity companies (of whom 225 were hired, and their company’s performance later correlated with their personality scores) found conscientiousness—in the form of persistence, attention to detail, and setting of high standards—was more important than other traits. These results attest to the importance of conscientiousness to organizational success.

    • Interestingly, conscientious people live longer because they take better care
    • of themselves (they eat better and exercise more) and engage in fewer risky
    • behaviors like smoking, drinking and drugs, and risky sexual or driving behavior.19 Still, probably because they’re so organized and structured, conscientious people don’t adapt as well to changing contexts. They are generally performance oriented and have more trouble learning complex skills early in the training process because their focus is on performing well rather than on
    • learning. Finally, they are often less creative than less conscientious people,
    • especially artistically.20
  15. What are the there traits that make up the dark triad?
    Machiavellianism- the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

    Narcissism - the tendency to be arrogant, have agrandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.

    Psychopathy – the tendency for a lack of concern for others and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause harm.

    The dark triad [1] is a group of three personality traits: narcissism, Machiavellianism andpsychopathy.[2][3][4] Use of the term "dark" implies that people scoring high on these traits have malevolent qualities. All three traits have been associated with a callous-manipulative interpersonal style.[12] A factor analysis carried out at the Glasgow Caledonian University found that among the big five personality traits, low agreeableness is the strongest correlate of the dark triad, while neuroticism and a lack ofconscientiousness were associated with some of the dark triad members.[10]
  16. What are values?  What implications does it have on Person-Organizational Fit?
    Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a person's sense of right and wrong or what "ought" to be.

    What is Person-Organization Fit?Person-Organization fit (P-O fit) is a concept that goes back many years, and is generally defined as compatibility between employees and their organizations. Compatibility can result from one party supplying a need of the other party, similar values across parties, or both. Researchers have found meaningful relationships with P-O fit as a predictor of work attitudes, job performance, and turnover.

    • Why is P-O Fit Important?
    • The general idea behind the importance of P-O fit is based on the attraction-selection-attrition (A-S-A) theory. According to the A-S-A theory, individuals are attracted to organizations with similar values and organizations tend to hire such individuals during the selection process. Finally, attrition becomes important as the employee sees first-hand the extent to which he or she is actually congruent with the organization, leading to a choice to either continue working for or leave the company.What does P-O Fit Predict?As mentioned previously, P-O fit has demonstrated relationships with three very important outcomes:Work attitudesTurnoverJob PerformanceWhile each of the three aforementioned outcomes is related to P-O fit, these relationships vary in magnitude; the strongest relationships are listed first.Work attitudes – The link between P-O fit and work attitudes is the strongest and most robust: the more an individual fits with the organization, the more likely he or she is to display higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.Turnover – Considering the high cost of turnover, this relationship is very important to the bottom line. It seems obvious, but individuals do not enjoy working for companies that do not align well with their personal values and often leave as a result.Job Performance – When individuals do not feel they fit well with the organization, it often has negative effects on the effort they put forth at work, leading to lower levels of job performance. Researchers have found P-O Fit to relate to both task performance (performance on tasks required of the job) and contextual performance (performance on tasks outside of those required by the job, like Organizational Citizenship Behaviors).Implications for PracticeWith the relationship between P-O fit and important work outcomes firmly established, the question becomes, how can organizations leverage this knowledge?Unfortunately, as it is currently conceptualized, P-O fit cannot be taught. The values and interests individuals have when they join an organization are longstanding, and will likely not change much as a result of employment.The alternative option is to look for applicants who match the company and bring them aboard to increase overall fit. This option is gaining in popularity in the last few years and will likely continue on that trend.To bring people aboard who match the organization, a P-O fit test, interview, or other form of selection tool will likely need to be implemented. Several consulting firms are available to aide in this type of selection.Going back to our initial example, let’s say our fictions organization implemented a screening tool to help choose the right people for the organization. As a result, the organization hires a different employee, one who prefers to work individually, is partial to working towards less optimistic goals, and would rather fall back on management when making important decisions. Now the organization and employee fit very well and stay together for a long time, perhaps living happily ever after?
  17. What is Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory?
    Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.[1]

    Dimensions of national cultures:

    Power distance index (PDI): The Power Distance Index is defined as “the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.” In this dimension, inequality and power is perceived from the followers, or the lower level. A higher degree of the Index indicates that hierarchy is clearly established and executed in society, without doubt or reason. A lower degree of the Index signifies that people question authority and attempt to distribute power.[6]

    Individualism vs. collectivism (IDV): This index explores the “degree to which people in a society are integrated into groups.” Individualistic societies have loose ties that often only relates an individual to his/her immediate family. They emphasize the “I” versus the “we.” Its counterpart, collectivism, describes a society in which tightly-integrated relationships tie extended families and others into in-groups. These in-groups are laced with undoubted loyalty and support each other when a conflict arises with another in-group.[6][7]

    Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI): The Uncertainty Avoidance Index is defined as “ a society's tolerance for ambiguity,” in which people embrace or avert an event of something unexpected, unknown, or away from the status quo. Societies that score a high degree in this index opt for stiff codes of behavior, guidelines, laws, and generally rely on absolute Truth, or the belief that one lone Truth dictates everything and people know what it is. A lower degree in this index shows more acceptance of differing thoughts/ideas. Society tends to impose fewer regulations, ambiguity is more accustomed to, and the environment is more free-flowing.[6][7]

    Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS): In this dimension, masculinity is defined as “a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success.” Its counterpart represents “a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life.” Women in the respective societies tend to display different values. In feminine societies, they share modest and caring views equally with men. In more masculine societies, women are more emphatic and competitive, but notably less emphatic than the men. In other words, they still recognize a gap between male and female values. This dimension is frequently viewed as taboo in highly masculine societies.[6][7]

    Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation (LTO): This dimension associates the connection of the past with the current and future actions/challenges. A lower degree of this index (short-term) indicates that traditions are honored and kept, while steadfastness is valued. Societies with a high degree in this index (long-term) views adaptation and circumstantial, pragmatic problem-solving as a necessity. A poor country that is short-term oriented usually has little to no economic development, while long-term oriented countries continue to develop to a point.[6][7]

    Indulgence vs. restraint (IND): This dimension is essentially a measure of happiness; whether or not simple joys are fulfilled. Indulgence is defined as “a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having fun.” Its counterpart is defined as “a society that controls gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.” Indulgent societies believe themselves to be in control of their own life and emotions; restrained societies believe other factors dictate their life and emotions.[6][7]
  18. Myer's Briggs Type Indicator is NOT...
    • - An intelligent test
    • - an indicator of psychological wellness/illness
    • - a report on one's culture, life experiences, educational background, etc
    • - a basis for hiring, firing or promotion
    • - an indicator for ability, talent or skill
  19. Myers Briggs Type Indicator instrument is...
    An indicator of personal preferences that tell us something about personality.

    A tool used to better understand and manage communication, change, problem solving,conflict management and conflict resolution.

    An assessment developed to make Carl Jung’s theory of personality development accessible.

    Writing exercise when we used our non-dominent hand to write our name.
  20. What is preference?
    • - a preferred mode of performing basic mental processes or tasks
    • - develops over the course of one's lifetime
    • -expression is influenced by culture, upbringing, life experiences and learnings


    In psychology, preferences could be conceived of as an individual’s attitude towards a set of objects, typically reflected in an explicit decision-making process (Lichtenstein & Slovic, 2006). Alternatively, one could interpret the term “preference” to mean evaluative judgment in the sense of liking or disliking an object (e.g., Scherer, 2005) which is the most typical definition employed in psychology. However, it does not mean that a preference is necessarily stable over time. Preference can be notably modified by decision-making processes, such as choices (Brehm, 1956; Sharot, De Martino, & Dolan, 2009), even unconsciously (see Coppin, Delplanque, Cayeux, Porcherot, & Sander, 2010).
  21. How Have Myers-Briggs Personality Tests Helped in the Workplace?
    • How will Myers Briggs benefit your employees:
    • 1. Acknowledge and work with differences
    • 2. Actively understand those differences within a team
    • 3. Improve and embrace different forms of communication
    • 4. Encourage the strengths of each distinct personality type

    • Work Environment
    • Employers use the results of personality tests to improve the work environment. For example, personality tests can measure communication styles. Learning the differences among these styles helps organizations develop programs and workplace rules that minimize conflict and improve communication among co-workers themselves and between workers and management. For example, the Myers-Briggs "thinking" and "feeling" scale measures how individuals evaluate information and make decisions. While a "thinking" individual prefers fairness, objectivity and truth, a "feeling" individual may value compassion and harmony in work relationships. These two styles may clash, for example, when a "thinking" supervisor delivers a seemingly objective performance review to a "feeling" employee that perceives the review as caustic or severely critical.

    • Team Development
    • Personality types explain the dominant function or preference of an individual and tell employers and project managers how individuals structure thoughts, attitudes, reach conclusions and interact. These personality types are often described in terms of team roles in the workplace, such as the "Actor," "Executive," "Coach," "Persuader" or "Analyst," each with a different strength and weakness. Each personality type also has an interaction style, such as a "Leader" or "Motivator." Employers and supervisors that understand these styles and team roles can leverage the strength of one employee to fill the weakness of another, developing teams that can interact effectively with one another, work to deadlines and complete tasks.

    • Training and Coaching
    • Employers can use personality test results to develop leaders, such as executives and directors. Some personality tests, such as The Birkman Method, help identify candidates who need more experience or who are ready for leadership. The Birkman Method also identifies certain behaviors, workplace needs and reactions to stress. Using this information, organizations can decide which leadership qualities to nurture in their leadership development programs and the training needs of individuals. For example, organizations may develop a "fast track" program for candidates who measure high on certain personality scales. They also can tailor curricula to the individual, emphasizing and developing qualities in candidates who may have measured low on a specific trait.
  22. What is perception, and why is it important?
    Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

    •  However, what we perceive can be substantially different from objective reality. For
    • example, all employees in a firm may view it as a great place to work—favorable
    • working conditions, interesting job assignments, good pay, excellent benefits,
    • understanding and responsible management—but, as most of us know, it’s very unusual to find such agreement.

    • It is important to the study of OB because people’s behaviors are based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.

    Percpetion...

    • -Helps to understand human abilities and limits, avoid sickness and injury.
    • -Determines appropriate range for input and output (frame rate, resolution, etc.).
    • -Helps understand that different senses have different range and abilities.
    • -Determines appropriate sensory channel to use to transfer information.
    • -Allows you to have better social skills and in a relationship when you have perception you understand the other person better and misunderstandings are less likely.
  23. What are some factors that influence perception?
    Factors of the perceiver: Attitudes, motives, interests, experience, expectations.

    Factors in the situation: Time, work setting, social setting

    Factors in the target: novelty, motion, sound, size, background, proximity, similarity


    Factors can reside in the perceiver; in the object, or target, being perceived; or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

    When you look at a target and attempt to interpret what you see, your interpretation is heavily influenced by your personal characteristics—your attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. For instance, if you expect police officers to be authoritative or young people to be lazy, you may perceive them as such, regardless of their actual traits.

    • Characteristics of the target also affect what we perceive. Loud people are more
    • likely to be noticed in a group than quiet ones. So, too, are extremely attractive or
    • unattractive individuals. Because we don’t look at targets in isolation, the relation-
    • ship of a target to its background also influences perception, as does our tendency to group close things and similar things together. We often perceive women, men, Whites, African Americans, Asians, or members of any other group that has clearly distinguishable characteristics as alike in other, unrelated ways as well.

    • Context matters too. The time at which we see an object or event can influ-
    • ence our attention, as can location, light, heat, or any number of situational
    • factors. At a nightclub on Saturday night, you may not notice a young guest
    • “dressed to the nines.” Yet that same person so attired for your Monday morn-
    • ing management class would certainly catch your attention (and that of the
    • rest of the class). Neither the perceiver nor the target has changed between
    • Saturday night and Monday morning, but the situation is different.

    Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret the signals received through their sensory organs to give meaning to their environment. What we perceive is definitely influenced by the environment which generates the signal received by sensory organs. But the same signals are not perceived by all individuals in the same way. There are differences. As a matter of fact there may be difference in the way an individual perceives the same object in the environment under different conditions.
  24. What is attribution theory?
    Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused.

    • Determination depends on three factors:
    • 1. Distinctiveness
    • 2. Consensus
    • 3. Consistency





    • Attribution theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people
    • differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior.1 It
    • suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to deter-
    • mine whether it was internally or externally caused. That determination, how-
    • ever, depends largely on three factors: (1) distinctiveness, (2) consensus, and
    • (3) consistency. First, let’s clarify the differences between internal and external
    • causation, and then we’ll elaborate on each of the three determining factors.

    Internally caused behaviors are those we believe to be under the personal control of the individual. Externally caused behavior is what we imagine the situation forced the individual to do. If one of your employees is late for work, you might attribute that to his partying into the wee hours and then oversleeping. This is an internal attribution. But if you attribute lateness to an automobile accident that tied up traffic, you are making an external attribution.

    Now let’s discuss the three determining factors.

    • Distinctiveness refers to
    • whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. Is the
    • employee who arrives late today also one who regularly “blows off” commit-
    • ments? What we want to know is whether this behavior is unusual. If it is, we
    • are likely to give it an external attribution. If it’s not, we will probably judge the behavior to be internal.

    • If everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way, we can
    • say the behavior shows consensus. The behavior of our tardy employee meets this
    • criterion if all employees who took the same route were also late. From an at-
    • tribution perspective, if consensus is high, you would probably give an external
    • attribution to the employee’s tardiness, whereas if other employees who took
    • the same route made it to work on time, you would attribute his lateness to an
    • internal cause.


    • Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person’s actions. Does the person respond the same way over time? Coming in 10 minutes late for work is not perceived in the same way for an employee who hasn’t been late for several months as it is for an employee who is late two or three times a week. The more consistent the behavior, the more we are inclined to attribute it to
    • internal causes.
  25. What is the difference between internally caused and externally caused attribution theory?
    Internally caused – those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. The process of assigning the cause of behaviour to some internal characteristic, rather than to outside forces. When we explain the behavior of others we look for enduring internal attributions, such as personality traits.  For example, we attribute the behavior of a person to their personality, motives or beliefs.

    Externally caused – resulting from outside causes.The process of assigning the cause of behaviour to some situation or event outside a person's control rather than to some internal characteristic. When we try to explain our own behavior we tend to make external attributions, such as situational or environment features.
  26. What is fundamental attribution error?
    We have a tendency to underestimate theinfluence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors.

    In social psychology, the fundamental attribution error, also known as the correspondence bias or attribution effect, is the tendency for people to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristics (personality) to explain someone else's behavior in a given situation rather than considering the situation's external ...

    • Example
    • I assume you have not done much today because you are lazy, rather than perhaps tired or lack the right resources.
  27. What is self serving bias (attribution theory)?
    Individuals attribute their own successes to internal factors.

    The self-serving bias is people's tendency to attribute positive events to their own character but attribute negative events to external factors. It's a common type of cognitive bias that has been extensively studied in social psychology.

    Example

    Positive event - You get an A for an essay and you attribute it to your own awesomeness! (internal attribution)

    Negative event - You get a C on an essay and you attribute it to your professor not having explained what they wanted well enough. (external attribution).
  28. What is selective perception (attribution theory)?
    Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived.

    Since we can’t observe everything going on around us, we engage in selective perception.
  29. What is the halo effect (Attribution theory)?
    The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic.

    The halo effect is a type ofcognitive bias in which our overall impression of a person influences how we feel and think about his or her character. Essentially, your overall impression of a person ("He is nice!") impacts your evaluations of that person's specific traits ("He is also smart!").

    One great example of the halo effect in action is our overall impression of celebrities.

    Since we perceive them as attractive, successful, and often likeable, we also tend to see them as intelligent, kind, and funny.
  30. What are contrast effects (Attribution Theory)?
    We do not evaluate a person in isolation.

    Our reaction to one person is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered.

    For example, an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception.

    Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule.
  31. What is stereotyping (Attribution theory)?
    Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs.

    This is a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency.

    We have to monitor ourselves to make sure we’re not unfairly applying a stereotype in our evaluations and decisions.
  32. What are three shortcuts we use in organizations to make judgements about others?
    Interviews

    Evidence indicates that interviewers make perceptual judgments that are often inaccurate. Interviewers generally draw early impressions that become very quickly entrenched. Studies indicate that most interviewers’ decisions change very little after the first four or five minutes of the interview.


    • Performance Expectations
    • Evidence demonstrates that people willattempt to validate their perceptions ofreality, even when those perceptions are faulty. Self-fulfilling prophecy, or the Pygmalion effect, characterizes the fact that people’s expectations determine their behavior. Expectations become reality.

    Performance Evaluation 

    An employee’s performance appraisal is verymuch dependent upon the perceptual process.Many jobs are evaluated in subjective terms. Subjective measures are problematic because of selective perception, contrast effects, halo effects, and so on.
  33. What are the steps in the Rational Decision Making Model?
    • 1. Define the problem
    • 2. Identify the decision criteria
    • 3. Allocate weights to the criteria
    • 4. Develop alternatives
    • 5. Evaluate alternatives
    • 6. Select the best alternative

    Assumptions of the Rational Model

    The decision maker…Has complete information.Is able to identify all the relevant options in an unbiased manner.Chooses the option with the highest utility. Most decisions in the real world don’t follow the rational model.
  34. What is bounded rationality?
    Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision-making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision.

    • How does bounded rationality work?
    • -Once a problem is identified, the search for criteriaand options begins.
    • -A limited list of the more conspicuous choices is identified(These are easy to find, tend to be highly visible, and represent familiar criteria and previously tried-and-true solutions)
    • -The decision maker then reviews the list, looking for a solution that is “good enough.”
    • -Sometimes a fast-and-frugal process of solving problems is the best option.
  35. What is intuitive decision making?
    Intuitive decision making occurs outsideconscious thought; it relies on holisticassociations, or links between disparate pieces ofinformation, is fast, and is affectively charged,meaning it usually engages the emotions.The key is neither to abandon nor rely solely on intuition, but to supplement it with evidence and good judgment.
  36. What is Overconfidence Bias?
    Individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to over estimate their performance and ability.
  37. What is Anchoring Bias?
    Fixating on initial information as a starting pointand failing to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
  38. What is Confirmation Bias?
    Type of selective perception.Seek out information that reaffirms past choices,and discount information that contradicts past judgments.
  39. What is availability bias?
    Tendency for people to base judgments on information that is readily available.
  40. What is Escalation of Commitment?
    Staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it’s wrong. Escalation is most likely to occur when individuals view themselves as responsible for the outcome.
  41. What is Randomness Error?
    Our tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events.Decision making becomes impaired when we try to create meaning out of random events.
  42. What is Risk Aversion?
    The tendency to prefer a sure thing instead of a risky outcome. Ambitious people with power that can be taken away appear to be especially risk averse.People will more likely engage in risk-seeking behavior for negative outcomes, and risk-averse behavior for positive outcomes, when under stress.
  43. Hindsight Bias
    The tendency to believe falsely that one has accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known.
  44. What is motivation?
    The process that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.

    Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class.
  45. What are the three key elements of motivation?
    • Intensity: how hard a person tries
    • Direction:  the orientation that benefits the organization

    Persistence: a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her effort.
  46. What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
    1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.

    2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.

    3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, affection and love, - from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships.

    4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from others.

    5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
  47. What is Theory X and Theory Y?
    Theory X assumptions are basically negative. Employees inherently dislike work and must becoerced into performing.

    Theory Y assumptions are basically positive.Employees can view work as being as natural asrest or play.
  48. What is McClelland’s Theory of Needs?
    Need for achievement (nAch): drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed.

    Need for power (nPow): need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.

    Need for affiliation (nAfl): desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.

    McClelland’s theory has had the best support.It has less practical effect than the others. Because McClelland argued that the three needs are subconscious—we may rank high on them but not know it—measuring them is not easy. The process is time consuming and expensive, and few organizations have been willing to invest in measuring McClelland’s concept.
  49. What is self determination theory?
    Proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions.Research on self-determination theory has focused on cognitive evaluation theory.People paid for work feel less like they want to do it and more like they have to it. Proposes that in addition to being driven by a need for autonomy, people seek ways to achievecompetence and positive connections to others.

    When extrinsic rewards are used as payoffs forperformance, employees feel they are doing a goodjob. Eliminating extrinsic rewards can also shift an individual’s perception of why he or she works on a task from an external to an internal explanation. Self-determination theory acknowledges that extrinsic rewards can improve even intrinsic motivation under specific circumstances.

    • What does self-determination theory suggest for providing rewards?
    • A senior sales representative may be motivated bya commission. A computer programmer who values writing code because she likes to solve problems might reactnegatively to an external standard like having towrite a certain number of lines of code every day.Self-concordance: considers how strongly people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values.
  50. What makes people more engaged in their job?
    The degree to which an employee believes it is meaningful to engage in work.

    A match between the individual’s values and the organization’s.

    Leadership behaviors that inspire workers to a greater sense of mission.
  51. What is Goal-Setting Theory?
    Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed.

    Evidence suggests:Specific goals increase performance.Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higherperformance than do easy goals.Feedback leads to higher performance than does non-feedback.

    • Three other factors influencing the goals-performance relationship:
    • 1. Goal commitment
    • 2. Task characteristics
    • 3. National culture
  52. What is Self-efficacy theory?
    • Self Efficacy Theory an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
    • -Enactive mastery
    • - Vicarious modeling
    • - Verbal persuasion

    Implications of self-efficacy theory:Training programs often make use of enactive mastery by having people practice and build their skills. Intelligence and personality are absent from Bandura’s list, but they can increase self-efficacy.

    Also known as social cognitive theory and social learning theory.
  53. What is reinforcement theory?
    The theory generally states that people seek out and remember information that provides cognitive support for their pre-existing attitudes and beliefs.

    Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i.e., the inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored by Skinner. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. Thus, according to Skinner, the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee. This theory is a strong tool for analyzing controlling mechanism for individual’s behaviour. However, it does not focus on the causes of individual’s behaviour.

    Positive Reinforcement- This implies giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behaviour. For example - Immediately praising an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behaviour occurring again. Reward is a positive reinforce, but not necessarily. If and only if the employees’ behaviour improves, reward can said to be a positive reinforcer. Positive reinforcement stimulates occurrence of a behaviour. It must be noted that more spontaneous is the giving of reward, the greater reinforcement value it has.

    Negative Reinforcement- This implies rewarding an employee by removing negative / undesirable consequences. Both positive and negative reinforcement can be used for increasing desirable / required behaviour.Punishment- It implies removing positive consequences so as to lower the probability of repeating undesirable behaviour in future. In other words, punishment means applying undesirable consequence for showing undesirable behaviour. For instance - Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules. Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from alternative source.

    Extinction- It implies absence of reinforcements. In other words, extinction implies lowering the probability of undesired behaviour by removing reward for that kind of behaviour. For instance - if an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behaviour is generating no fruitful consequence. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behaviour.
  54. What is Social-learning theory?
    we can learn through both observation and direct experience.

    • Models are central, and four processes determinetheir influence on an individual:
    • -Attentional processes
    • -Retention processes
    • -Motor reproduction processes
    • -Reinforcement processes
  55. When employees perceive an inequity, they can be predicted to make one of six choices:
    • 1. Change their inputs.
    • 2. Change their outcomes.
    • 3. Distort perceptions of self.
    • 4. Distort perceptions of others.
    • 5. Choose a different referent.
    • 6. Leave the field.
  56. What is expectancy theory?
    Expectancy theory argues that a tendency to act in a certain way depends on an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.

    An employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that:Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. A good appraisal will lead to rewards.The rewards will satisfy his or her personal goals.

    Expectancy theory helps explain why a lot of workers aren’t motivated on their jobs and do only the minimum necessary to get by.

    • Three questions employees need to answer in the affirmative if their motivation is to be maximized:
    • 1. If I give maximum effort, will it be recognized in my performance appraisal?
    • 2. If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational rewards?
    • 3. If I’m rewarded, are the rewards attractive to me?
  57. What are some alternative work arrangements that can motivate employees?
    Job Sharing - where two or more people split a 40 hour work week job

    Telecommuting - employees who do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their office

    Flex hours
  58. What are strengths and weaknesses of group decision making?
    • Strengths of group decision making:
    • -More complete information and knowledge
    • -Increased diversity of views
    • -Increased acceptance of solutions

    • Weaknesses of group decision making:
    • -Time consuming
    • -Conformity pressures
    • -Dominance of a few members
    • -Ambiguous responsibility
  59. What is group think and group shift?
    Groupthink – situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual,minority, or unpopular views.

    Groupshift – a change between a group’s decision and anindividual decision that a member within the group wouldmake.
  60. What factors determine whether teams are successful?
    • Adequate Resources
    • Leadership and Structure
    • Climate of Trust
    • Performance Evaluations and Rewards
Author:
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