Resp2- Resp Bacteriology

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  1. Describe the colonization of the respiratory tract based on anatomic location. (3 big segments)
    • Nasopharynx--> larynx: heavy colonization
    • Trachea: light colonization/ contamination from nasopharynx
    • Bronchi-->alveoli: should culture negative/maybe transient contamination
  2. Describe the colonization of the paranasal sinuses and eustachian tube.
    • Paranasal sinuses: very low bacterial #- sterile
    • Eustachian tube: pathway for pharyngeal flora
  3. Factors that allow infection to occur. (4)
    impaired mucociliary clearance, overwhelming innocula of pathogens, immune status/nutrition/stress, environment
  4. Normal flora of the nose. (6)
    Bacillus, Streps, Staphs, Mycoplasma, Non-fermentative gram negatives (Pseudomonas), Bordatella bronchiseptica
  5. What are gram negative primary pathogens (common opportunists)? (5)
    • HAP-B (M)
    • Histophilus somni
    • Actinobacillus spp.
    • Pasteurella spp.
    • Gram negs, EXCEPT Bordatella spp.
    • Mannheimia haemolytica
  6. What are gram positive primary pathogens (common opportunists)? (3)
    beta-hemolytic strep, Trueperella spp, Rhodococcus equi
  7. What miscellaneous pathogens (not gram + or -) are primary pathogens (common opportunists)? (2)
    Salmonella dublin, Calf Diphtheria
  8. What are 4 important members of the Pasteurellaceae family? (4)
    What are some important characteristics of this family?
    Pasteurella, Actiobacillus, Histophilus, Mannheimia; gram negative anaerobic rods
  9. Mannheimia haemolytica:
    Gram stain:
    Host species:
    Lesion associated: (2)
    Sites to sample: (2)
    • Gram stain: neg
    • Host species: cattle
    • Lesion associated: bronchopneumonia and pleuropneumonia
    • Sites to sample: lung culture post mortem or trans-tracheal wash
  10. Pasteurella multocida:
    Gram stain: 
    Host species:
    Lesion associated: (2)
    Sites to sample: (2)
    • Gram stain: neg
    • Host species: cattle
    • Lesion associated: bronchopneumonia and pleuropneumonia
    • Sites to sample: lung culture post mortem or trans-tracheal wash
  11. Histophilus somni:
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (2)
    Sites to sample: (2)
    • Gram stain: neg
    • Host species: cattle
    • Lesion associated: bronchopneumonia and pleuropneumonia
    • Sites to sample: lung culture post mortem or trans-tracheal wash
  12. BRD complex carries a presumptive etiologic agent of ___________.
    Mannheimia hemolytica
  13. Enzootic pneumonia of calves carries a presumptive etiology of __(2)__.
    Pasteurella multocida or Histophilus somni
  14. Mycoplasma bovis
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesions associated: (3)
    Sites to sample: (2)
    Dx: (2)
    Special care: (3)
    • Gram stain: none, no cell wall
    • Host species: microflora of URT in cattle
    • Lesions associated: [common coinfection with MH, HS, PM] bronchopneumonia in calves, otitis media, polyarthritis
    • Sites to sample: lung tissue, pharyngeal/ tracheal swab
    • Dx: Culture or PCR
    • Special care: specialized media, keep at 4 degrees C for up to 2 days; don't use wooden swabs
  15. What are key features of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides? (4)
    eradicated from western hemisphere, diaphragmatic lobe involvement only or unilateral, copious yellow fluid, marbled lung
  16. Trueperella pyogenes
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (2)
    • Gram stain: positive
    • Host species:  normal URT flora of cattle
    • Lesion associated: secondary invader in chronic PM or MB cases; abscesses
  17. What is the etiologic agent of calf diphtheria?
    Fusobacterium necrophorum
  18. Fusobacterium necrophorum
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesions associated: (1)
    Dx: (2)
    • Gram stain: negative 
    • Host species: ubiquitous oral flora in cattle
    • Lesion associated: necrotizing laryngitis in calves 3-18 months
    • Dx: diagnosis on exam/necropsy, anaerobic culture on laryngeal tissue
  19. Salmonella dublin
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (2)
    Dx: (1)
    • Gram stain: neg
    • Host species: cattle
    • Lesion associated: bacteremia--> interstitial pneumonia
    • Dx: necropsy
  20. Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated:
    Sites to sample: (1)
    • Gram stain: positive
    • Host species: ubiquitous pharyngeal organism in horses
    • Lesion associated: none???????
    • Sites to sample: gutteral pouch wash
  21. Streptococcus equi ssp. equi
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (2)
    Sites to sample: (2)
    Dx: (1)
    • Gram stain: positive
    • Host species: contagious organism of horses
    • Lesion associated: strangles, bastard strangles
    • Sites to sample: gutteral pouch wash for culture, dry swab only for PCR
    • Dx: PCR
  22. How do you screen for Strep equi ssp. equi carriers?
    PCR on gutteral pouch wash= most sensitive, 3 negative samples 7 days apart
  23. What causes equine pleuropneumonia? What is the etiologic agent?
    aspiration of bacteria naso/oropharynx overwhelms defense mechanisms; usually Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus
  24. What do you submit for culture with equine pleuropneumonia? Do you need to make a special request from the lab?
    optimally, both trans-tracheal wash and centesis [if you must pick one, pick TTW]; yes, request aerobic AND anaerobic cultures
  25. Rhodococcus spp.
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (1)
    Sites to sample: (2)
    • Gram stain: positive
    • Host species: horses <8 months old (grows in soil, inhaled on dusty conditions)
    • Lesion associated: bronchopneumonia
    • Sites to sample: trans-tracheal wash, virulence associated plasmid on PCR
  26. With bacterial respiratory diseases in swine, there is frequently co-infection with _________, such as... (4)
    viruses; PRRS, Circovirus, Influenza, Pseudorabies
  27. Atrophic rhinitis occurs in hogs _______[age]; pathogenesis involves...
    1-8 weeks old; Bordatella bronchiseptica predisposes to P. multocida dermonectrotic toxin + strains,
  28. Mycoplasma hyorhinis
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (2)
    • Gram stain: none, no cell wall
    • Host species: normal URT flora of hogs
    • Lesion associated: +/- polyserositis/ arthritis in hogs <10wks old
  29. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (2)
    Sites to sample: (1)
    Special notes: (2)
    • Gram stain: none, no cell wall
    • Host species: hogs 3-5 months old
    • Lesion associated: enzootic pneumonia, bronchopneumonia
    • Sites to sample: tracheobronchial swab for serology/PCR
    • Special notes: culture is slow and challenging, swab tracheobronchial region rather than lung b/c organisms stick to cilia
  30. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
    Gram stain: 
    Host species: 
    Lesion associated: (1)
    Sites to sample: (1)
    Dx: (2)
    • Gram stain: negative
    • Host species: 10wk finisher pigs
    • Lesion associated: fibrinous pleuropneumonia
    • Sites to sample: lung tissue sample
    • Dx: culture on chocolate agar, serology (Atb, APX IV antibodies)
  31. What organisms require culture on chocolate agar and why? What is an alternative to this?
    Haemophilus (requires X and V factors), Actinobacillus (requires V factor only); "nurse streak" of Staph aureus on blood agar (provides needed factors)
  32. In small animal, Bordatella bronchiseptica most frequently causes __________ in _________ in association with ___________; it may progress to __________.
    tracheitis; dogs; canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC); bronchopneumonia
  33. How do you diagnose Bordatella bronchiseptica in small animals?
    trans-tracheal wash or broncho-alveolar lavage  for routine bacterial culture
  34. Describe Strep equi ssp. zooepidemicus in small animals.
    group housing; severe, suppurative hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia in dogs
  35. In small animals, Mycoplasma is often associated with _____________.
    asthma in cats (complicating factor)
  36. What is aspiration pneumonia usually associated with in small animals? (3)
    vomiting GI contents, aspiration of pharyngeal contents; almost always polymicrobial
  37. Describe the diagnostic approach to pneumonia in small animals.
    tracheal wash or broncho-alveoar lavage if stable enough; empirical antimicrobial therapy often used

Card Set Information

Author:
Mawad
ID:
315701
Filename:
Resp2- Resp Bacteriology
Updated:
2016-03-07 13:30:45
Tags:
vetmed resp2
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vetmed resp2
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