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What is 'war'? And what is the aim of war?
- 'Armed hostilities between peoples', usually between different nations or groups.
- To inflict as much damage to the opponent as possible, while receiving as little to yourself as possible
How has war changed? Give some figures.
- War was previously fought on the battlefield with an army consisting of the country's population. Few casualties were civilian.
- E.G WW1 5% were civilian
- War is now fought with small troops in the army using high tech weapons.
- Civilian casualties have increased
- WW2: 60%
- Wars Today: 80%
Why did the Just war theory develop?
- Tension between the old and new testaments
- Developed in Christian circles, but not exclusively
- There are times when fighting is necessary, so it offers guidelines
What is the Early Background of the Just War Theory?
- Early Church followed Jesus literally - total pacifists
- Christianity official religion of Roman Empire but their refusal to fight caused them to be losing a war
- Church began to accept war in certain circumstances.
- Augustine (Roman Emperor) put forward two conditions under which was was allowed.
What were Augustine's two conditions allowing war?
- Legitimate Authority
- Just Cause
What did the Old Testament say in Deuteronomy 1:30?
God will fight - "The lord your God, who is going before you, will fight for you, as he did in Egypt, before your very eyes."
What did the New Testament say in Matthew 5:9?
Those who make peace are blessed by God - "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the children of God."
What is the Latin term for the conditions allowing war?
Jus ad bellum
What is the Latin term for conduct in war?
Jus in bello
What are the conditions allowing war?
- Just cause
- Just intention
- Last Resort
- Declared by competent authority
- Comparison of Justice on both sides
- Reasonable likelihood of success
What are the terms of conduct in war?
- Proportionality - weapons proportional to threat
- Reasonable proportion between injustice fought and the suffering caused
- Warfare must discriminate - Geneva Convention
What are the four types of Pacifism?
- Absolute - never right to take part in war/killing human beings
- Relative - war may be the lesser of two evils
- Nuclear/Selective - Opposition to weapons of mass destruction
- Active - Engaged in political activity/campaigns to promote peace
Name and Quote a Pacifist Scholar
Bertrand Russell "Patriots always talk of dying for their country, but never talk of killing for their country."
Why was Jesus an example of a Pacifist?
- He rejected the use of physical force, even in defence of himself.
- "Those who live by the sword die by the sword."
Three Pairs of Pros and Cons of the Just War theory?
- For Has the potential to save lots of lives
- Against Who is it okay to target. Perhaps everyone that pays taxes isn't a civilian.
- For Will help to stop unjust wars from happening, war is regulated and MUST be a last resort
- Against Allows war meaning they are more likely to happen
- For Ensures suffering and damage are kept to a minimum
- Against Unrealistic to expect people to consider their actions in a life/death situation
- (For: Allows for just intervention, preventing unjust wars.
- Against: Unrealistic since people/countries are selfish and take part in was based on their realism of strength, not an ethical theory)