Surgery Dr Q: Chapter 3

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  1. True analgesia
    Opioids
  2. Non water soluble anesthetic
    Diazepam
  3. Can two water soluble anesthetics be safely mixed together?
    Yes
  4. Can a water soluble and a non water soluble anesthetic safely be mixed together?
    No
  5. What can happen with sedatives that are given IM or SQ?
    Leave patient undisturbed because excitement or stimulation can occur causing an override in the drug effects
  6. How should you give drugs IV?
    Slowly and continuously because potency and risk of adverse effects are increased
  7. Major effects of anticholinergics
    • Prevention of bradycardia
    • Increased heart rate
    • Reduction of respiratory, GI, salivary and lacrimal secretions
    • Mydriasis 
    • Bronchodilatation
  8. Adverse effects of of anticholinergics
    • Cardiac arrhythmia 
    • Mydriasis
    • Bronchodilation
    • Thickening of respiratory and salivary secretions
    • Inhibition of peristalsis
  9. When drawing up ___ check drug concentration
    Atropine, available in 2 strengths that vary in concentration factor of 30
  10. Major effects of phenothiazines
    • Calming
    • Sedation
    • Peripheral vasodilatation
    • Antiarrhythmic
    • Antiemetic
    • Decrease anxiety
  11. Adverse effects of phenothiazines
    • Reduction of seizure threshold
    • Hypotension
    • Penile prolapse in stallions
    • Decreased PCV
  12. Common dose of Acepromazine
    • 0.05 to 0.1 mg/kg small animals 
    • Max dose for dogs is 3 mg/kg
    • Max dose for cats is 1 mg/kg
  13. Major effects of benzodiazepines
    • Antianxiety/Calming in old/ill patients
    • Anticonvulsant 
    • Skeletal muscle relaxation
    • Appetite stimulation in cats/ruminants
  14. Adverse effects of benzodiazepines
    • Disorientation/excitement in young healthy dogs
    • Dysphoria/aggression in cats
    • Ataxia/recumbency in large animals 
    • Muscle fasciculations in horses
    • Pain at IM injection site of diazepam
  15. Diazepam shouldn't be mixed with which drugs because a precipitate may form
    • Atropine
    • Acepromazine
    • Barbiturates 
    • Opioids
  16. Which drug becomes absorbed in plastic?
    Diazepam
  17. Major effects of alpha2 agonists
    • Dose dependent sedation 
    • Analgesia
    • Decreased cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure
    • Decreased respiratory rate and tidal volume
    • Muscle relaxation
    • Vomiting in small animals
  18. Adverse effects of alpha2 agonists
    • Agitation/aggression when touched
    • Reaction to loud noises
    • Ataxia/falling in cattle
    • Severe bradycardia
    • Hypotension
    • Decreased cardiac output
    • Severe respiratory depression
  19. Major effects of opioids
    • CNS depression in dogs
    • Excitement in cats/large animals
    • Somatic and visceral analgesia
    • Bradycardia
    • Panting in dogs
    • Miosis in dogs
    • Mydriasis in cats
    • Increased responsiveness to noise
  20. Adverse effects of opioids
    • Anxiety 
    • Disorientation
    • Excitement
    • Dysphoria
    • Increased motor activity
    • Bradycardia
    • Decreased respiratory rate and tidal volume
    • Salivation and vomiting in small animals
    • Initial diarrhea followed by flatulence and ileus
  21. Ultra short acting barbiturates thiopental sodium and methohexital are used to...
    Induce anesthesia primarily in dogs cats and horses
  22. Short acting barbiturate pentobarbital is used to...
    Induce and maintain general anesthesia in lab animals and treat status epilepticus in small animals
  23. Long acting barbiturate phenobarbital is used as a...
    Sedative and anticonvulsant
  24. Major effects of barbiturates
    • CNS depression from mild sedation to general anesthesia
    • Decreased cardiac output and blood pressure
    • Decreased respiratory rate and tidal volume
    • Increased salivation
    • Sneezing
    • Laryngospasm 
    • Coughing
  25. Adverse effects of barbiturates
    • Cardiac arrhythmias
    • Bigeminy
    • Profound respiratory depression/apnea
    • Prolonged recovery in sighthounds
    • Increased potency in critically ill patients
    • Tissue irritation and sloughing after perivascular injection
    • Excitement during induction and recovery
  26. Major effects of propofol
    • CNS depression ranging from sedation to general anesthesia
    • Bradycardia
    • Decreased cardiac output and hypotension
    • Respiratory depression/apnea
    • Muscle twitching during induction
    • Muscle relaxation
  27. Adverse effects of propofol
    • Transient excitement
    • Muscle tremors
    • Seizure-like activity during induction
    • Prolonged hypotension 
    • Apnea after rapid injection
    • Pain from IV injection
  28. How should propofol be handled
    Aseptically
  29. Major effects of dissociatives
    • Cataleptoid state 
    • Intact reflexes
    • Eyes open
    • Pupils central and dilated 
    • Normal or increased muscle tone
    • Analgesia
    • Sensitivity to sensory stimuli 
    • Increased heart rate, cardiac output, MAP
  30. Adverse effects of dissociatives
    • Exaggerated response to touch, light and sound during recovery 
    • Seizure-like activity 
    • Nystagmus
    • Decreased inotropy
    • Increased salivary and respiratory tract secretions
  31. Major effects of etomidate
    • Hypnosis with minimal analgesia
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Minimal effect on cardiopulmonary function
    • Good muscle relaxation
    • Spontaneous twitching during induction/recovery
  32. Adverse effects of etomidate
    • Pain after IV injection
    • Hemolysis in cats after rapid injection
    • Decreased cortisol levels
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting and excitement during induction/recovery
  33. Vapor pressure
    Measures the tendency of a liquid anesthetic to evaporate and determines whether a precision vaporizer is used to deliver the agent
  34. Blood-gas partition coefficient
    Measure of the solubility of an inhalant anesthetic in blood as compared with alveolar gas. Indicates the speed of induction and recovery
  35. ___ the blood-gas partition coefficient the ___ the expected induction and recovery
    • Lower
    • Faster
  36. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC)
    Lowest concentration at which 50% of patients show no response to a painful stimulus. Measures the potency of the agent and used to determine the average setting of the vaporizer
  37. Which inhalant anesthetic has the fewest adverse effects and is the best choice for patients with cardiac disease?
    Isoflurane
  38. Which inhalant anesthetic is best suited for mask or chamber inductions?
    Sevoflurane
  39. Which inhalant anesthetic has the lowest blood-gas partition coefficient and produces inductions and recoveries twice as fast as isoflurane?
    Desflurane
  40. Nicknamed one breath anesthesia
    Desflurane
  41. Neuroleptanalgesia is a combination of...
    Opioid and tranquilizer
  42. TRUE OR FALSE. Most preanesthetics wont cross placental barrier
    False
  43. TRUE OR FALSE. Its recommended atropine not be given to an animal that has tachycardia
    True
  44. Anticholinergic drugs such as Atropine block the release of acetylcholine at which receptors?
    Muscarinic receptors of the parasympathetic system
  45. TRUE OR FALSE. High doses of opioids can cause bradycardia and respiratory depression
    True
  46. Dexmedetomidine is reversed by which drug
    Atipamezole
  47. Opioids may be reversed with which drug
    Naloxone
  48. Etomidate is well suited for induction of dogs with what problem
    Severe cardiac disease
  49. Ketamine is what kind of drug
    Dissociative
  50. TRUE OR FALSE. One of the disadvantages of methohexital is that animals that are anesthetized with it may demonstrate excitement during recovery
    True
  51. Compared with methoxyflurane, isoflurane is considered to have...
    High vapor pressure
  52. To safely maintain a surgical plane of anesthesia the vaporizer should be set at...
    1.5 X MAC
  53. Propofol sometimes causes transient apnea, to avoid this administer the drug...
    In several small boluses
  54. One problem associated with recovery from tiletamine-zolazepam in dogs is...
    Excitement
  55. Concentration of barbiturate entering the brain is affected by...
    • Perfusion of the brain
    • Lipid solubility of the drug
    • Plasma protein levels
    • Blood pH
  56. Effects commonly seen after administration of a dissociative include..
    • Increased blood pressure
    • Increased heart rate
    • Increased CSF pressure
    • Increased intraocular pressure
  57. Adverse effect common with isoflurane
    Depression of respiration
  58. MAC will vary with..
    • Body temperature
    • Age
    • Concurrent use of other drugs
    • Anesthetic agent
  59. Factors that may affect the speed of anesthetics induction with a volatile gaseous anesthetic include...
    Partition coefficient of the agent and vaporizer setting
  60. Examples of alpha2 agonists
    • Xylazine
    • Dexmedetomidine
  61. Effects atropine may have on the body..
    • Decreased salivation
    • Decreased GI motility
    • Mydriasis
  62. Induction agent made with soy and egg
    Propofol
  63. Anesthetics are classified by...
    • Route of administration
    • timing of administration
    • Drug principal effect
    • Chemistry make-up
  64. The effect that the body has on a drug, including movement of the drug in the body
    Pharmacokinetics
  65. The effect that a drug has on the body, drug action
    Pharmacodynamics
  66. A drug that binds to and stimulates tissue receptors
    Agonist
  67. A drug that binds to but does not stimulate receptors
    Antagonist
  68. A drug that binds to more than one receptor type, simultaneously stimulating at least one and blocking at least one
    Agonist-antagonist
  69. Alpha 2 antagonist/reversal agents
    • Yohimbine
    • Tolazoline
    • Atipamezole
  70. Benefits of alpha 2 antagonists
    • Reversal of agonists, including reversal of pain control
    • Safe when given at correct dose
  71. Other effects of Alpha 2 antagonists
    • Potential for cardiac arrhythmias
    • High doses could cause neuro/cardiac/GI stimulation
  72. Reversal agents of Xylazine
    • Yohimbine
    • Tolazoline
  73. Cats mainly die from
    • Kidney disease
    • Cancer
    • FeLeuk
  74. Neuroleptanalgesia are good for...
    • Short minimally uncomfortable procedures (radiographs, minor wound treatments)
    • Not usually sufficient enough to intubate
    • Rapid IV injection could cause excitement and respiratory depression
  75. Inhalant anesthetics
    • Halothane
    • Isoflurane
    • Sevoflurane
    • Desflurane
  76. Where does O2 and CO2 exchange occur
    In aveoli of the lungs and is concentration/equilibration dependent
  77. Effects of inhalant anesthetics
    • CNS depression
    • Vasodilation, decreased cardiac output and BP
    • Respiratory depression
    • Can raise ICP/IOP
    • Hypoventilation
  78. Isoflurane
    • High VP, low partition concentration
    • MAC 1/3%-1.63%
    • Fewest adverse cardiovascular effects
    • Respiratory depression
    • Maintains cerebral blood flow
    • No analgesia
    • If CO2 absorbent canister is over used could cause carbon monoxide poisoning
    • Muscle relaxation
  79. Sevoflurane
    • Best for mask and chamber induction
    • Low partition coefficient
    • MAC 2.34-2.58%
    • Some myocardial suppression and hypotension
    • Respiratory depression
    • No analgesia
  80. Doxapram
    • Analeptic agent used to stimulate respirations
    • Used in neonates after c-section
    • Stimulates respiratory centers in brainstem
    • Could cause hypertension or arrhythmias
    • Lowers seizures threshold
Author:
Kristenw
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Card Set:
Surgery Dr Q: Chapter 3
Updated:
2016-02-28 23:04:07
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Surgery Dr Q Chapter 3
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