BIO 211 Ch 6

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  1. What is brown fat?
    Brown fat is located on the back of a baby, which helps produce heat. Brown fat may be involved in weight regulation.
  2. What are the stages of cellular respiration?
    gycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  3. ______ is when consumed sugar is broken down to CO2 and H2O and the cell captures the released energy as ATP.
    Cellular respiration.
  4. How is breathing and cellular respiration related?
    The lungs take in O2 and pass it to the bloodstream. The bloodstream carries the O2 to muscle cells, where the mitochondria in the muscle cells use the O2 in cellular respiration to harvest energy from glucose and produce ATP
  5. How much energy can be produced by the cellular respiration of one glucose molecule?
    32 ATP molecules and heat (66%)
  6. Approximately how much energy does your brain need?
    approximately 120 grams for glucose in energy. As much as 75% of daily intake of calories goes to the brain
  7. What is a kilocalorie?
    A kcal (kilocalorie) is the amount of energy in heat required to raise 1 kg of water by 1 degree-Celsius.
  8. What occurs during a redox (oxidation-reduction) reaction?
    A redox reaction is the movement of electrons from one molecule to another. The substance loosing electrons undergoes oxidation; the substance gaining electrons undergoes reduction.
  9. What is NAD+?
    NAD+ is a coenzyme (organic molecule) that is important in the process of oxidizing glucose. NAD+ is made from cells via the vitamin niacin.
  10. How is NADH formed?
    NADH is formed when coenzyme NAD+ accepts electrons (generally represented in equations with hydrogen) and becomes reduced.
  11. What are the three main stages of cellular respiration?
    Glycolysis, citric acid cylce and oxidative phosphorylation
  12. What happens during glycolysis?
    This occurs in the cytosol of the cell. Glycolysis begins cellular respiration by breaking glucose into two molecules of a three carbon compound (pyruvate)
  13. During what stage of cellular respiration breaks down glucose into two pyruvate molecules (three carbon compound)?
    Glycolysis! The beginning of cellular respiration.
  14. What occurs in stage two of cellular respiration?
    pyruvate oxidation (pyruvate oxidized into a two-carbon compound) and citric acid cycle (completes breakdown of glucose into carbon dioxide)
  15. What is the main function of the first two stages (glycolysis and pyruvuate oxidation & citric acid cycle)? Is energy produced during these stages?
    The main function of glycolysis and pyruvuate oxidation/ citric acid cycle is to supply the third stage of respiration with electrons. Yes, the first two stages produce a small amount of ATP.
  16. Where does the CO2 that you breath out come from?
    This CO2 comes from the mitochondria produced in the second stage of respiration.
  17. What occurs in the third (and final) stage of respiration?
    The third respiration stage is called Oxidative phosphorylation and involves electron transport (chemiosmosis) via NADH and FADH2 to electron transport chain embedded in the mitochondrial membrane.
  18. Explain the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
    A process called chemiosmosis transports electrons utilizing electron carriers NADH and FADH2 to an electron transport chain embedded in the mitochondrial membrane.
  19. During what respiration stage does chemiosmosis transport electrons (using NADH and FADH2) to an electron transport chain inside the mitochondrial membrane?
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  20. How is ATP produced during oxidative phosphorylation?
    Most of the ATP is produced in this stage. From the energy released by the downhill fall of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen to phosphorylate ADP into ATP
  21. How is energy production (in the oxidative phosphorylation cycle) related to the transfer of electrons from NADH and FADH2 to Oxygen?
    As the electrons are falling downhill from NADH/FADH2 to Oxygen, energy is released. This energy facilitates the phosphroylation of ADP into ATP.
  22. In ______ the potential energy from the concentration gradient of H+ (formed from electron transport chain moving across membrane) is used to make ATP
  23. Explain chemiosmosis.
    Chemiosmosis uses potential energy formed from energy transport chain concentration gradient via H+ to create ATP
  24. Of the three stages of cellular respiration, which ones uses oxygen?
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  25. How many chemical steps occur occur between the splitting of glucose into two pyruvate molecules?
    Nine chemical steps! During these steps, two molecules of NAD+ are reduced to two molecules of NADH, producing a net gain of two ATP

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BIO 211 Ch 6
2016-02-12 04:25:58
cellular biology cellularbiology

Ch 6
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