Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Flashcards - Set 10

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  1. Bacteria faced with environmental stress undergo complex molecular repreogramming that includes changes in cell structure.
    Examples include:
    - ______ of Gram-positive bacteria
    - ______ of cyanobacteria
    - _____ ____ of Myxococcus xanthus
    - ____ ____ and _____ of Streptomyces
    • - endospore
    • - heterocysts
    • - fruiting bodies
    • - aerial hyphae, arthrospores
  2. _____ and ____ species can produce dormant spores that are heat resistant (endospores)
    Clostridium, Bacillus
  3. Starvation in Clostridium and Bacillus species initiates an elaborate 8-hour genetic program that involves:
    - An assymetrical division process that produces a ______ and ultimately an _____.
    forespore, endospore
  4. Sporulation can be divided into discrete stages based primarily on _______ appearance.
    morphological
  5. Anabaena differentiates into specialized cells called _______.
    - Allow it to fix nitrogen anaerobically while maintaining oxygenic photosynthesis
    heterocysts
  6. Myxococcus xanthus uses ____ motility.
    - starvation triggers the aggregation of 100,000 cells, which form a fruiting body
    gliding
  7. Streptomyces bacteria form _____ and ______ analogous to those of fungi.
    - As nutrients decline, aerial hyphae divide into _____ that are resistant to drying.
    mycelia, sporangia, arthrospores
  8. Microbes have both the ____ and the _____ growth rates of known organisms.
    fastest, slowest
  9. Some hot-springs bacteria can double in as little as ___ minutes, whereas deep-seas sediment microbes may take as long as _____ years.
    10, 100
  10. The differences in growth rates of microbes are determined by ____ and niche-specific physical parameters like ____ and ___.
    nutrition, temperature, pH
  11. The "normal" growth conditions are:
    - ____ level
    - Temperature: ____ - ____ °C
    - ______ pH
    - ____% salt
    - ample nutrients
    • - sea
    • - 20-40
    • - neutral
    • - 0.9
  12. Any ecological niche otuside of the "normal" growth conditions are called "extreme" and organisms inhabiting them are called _______.
    extremophiles.
  13. The environmental habitat (such as high salt or low pH) that a species inhabits is based on one main criterion:
    The tolerance of that organism's proteins and other macromolecular structures to the physical conditions within that niche
  14. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth above 80°C
    - or ~65-121°C
    hyperthomophile
  15. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth between 50-80°C
    - or ~40-80°C
    thermophile
  16. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth between 15-45°C
    mesophile
  17. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - Growth below 15°C
    - 0-20°C
    psychrophile
  18. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth above pH 9
    - pH 9-11
    - typically found in soda lakes
    alkaliphile
  19. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth between pH 5 and pH 8
    - include most pathogens
    neutralophile
  20. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth below pH 3
    - pH 0-5
    - are often chemoautotrophs
    acidophile
  21. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth in high salt, >2-M NaCl
    halophile
  22. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth only in O2
    aerobe
  23. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth with or without O2
    facultative
  24. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth only in small amounts of O2
    microaerophile
  25. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - Growth only without O2
    Anaerobe
  26. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth at high pressure, greater than 380 atm
    - up to 1,000 atm (110 MPa)
    barophile
  27. Name the basic environmental classification of microorganisms:
    - growth between 10 and 495 atm
    - range of 1-50 MPa
    barotolerant
  28. A bacterial cell's temperature matches that of its ______ environment.
    immediate
  29. Microbes that grow at higher temperatres can typically achieve _____ rates of growth.
    higher
  30. The growth rate roughly doubles for every _____°C rise in temperature (~chemical reactions)
    10
  31. The typical temperature growth range usually spans the organism's optimal growth temperature by ___-___°C
    30-40
  32. Rapid temperature changes experienced during growth activates batches of stress response genes, resulting in the ____-____ ______.
    heat-shock response
  33. Heat-shock response involves protein products including _____ that maintain protein shape and enzymes that change membrane lipid composition.
    chaperones
  34. All enzyme activities exhibit _____, minima, and _____ with regard to pH.
    optima, maxima
  35. Saline soda lakes have ____ salt concentrations and pH values as high as pH ____.
    salt, 11
  36. Most alkaliphiles use a ____ motive force in addition to a proton motive force to do much of the work of the cell.
    sodium

    - they also rely heavily on Na+/H+ antiporters to bring protons into the cell
  37. When cells are placed in pH conditions below their optimum, protons can ____ the cell and lower internal pH to lethal levels.
    enter
  38. Microbes can prevent the unwanted influx of protons by exchanging extracellular K+ for intracellular H+ when the internal pH becomes too ____.
    low
  39. Under extremely alkaline conditions, the cells can use the Na+/H+ antiporter to move protons ____ the cell in exchange for expelling Na+.
    into
  40. Many, if not all, microbes also possess an emergency global response system referred to as acid _____ or acid _____.
    tolerance, resistance
  41. Microbes include members of which of the following groups?
    A) bacteria, animals, protozoa, fungi
    B) arhaea, viruses, plants, fungi
    C) bacteria, archaea, protozoa, plants
    D) bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses
    D) bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following uses sunlight for energy and CO2 as a carbon source?
    A) photoautotroph
    B) chemoautotroph
    C) photoheterotroph
    D) chemoheterotroph
    A) photoautotroph
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The bacterium Sllub adirolfhtuos has a generation time of 20 minutes. Starting with one cell in log phase, how many minutes does it take to produce about 1,000 cells? Assume all cells remain viable.
    A) 200
    B) 160
    C) 100
    D) 220
    E) 140
    A) 200
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

Card Set Information

Author:
tulipyoursweety
ID:
315818
Filename:
Microbiology 351 Exam 1 Flashcards - Set 10
Updated:
2016-02-12 03:45:07
Tags:
microbiology
Folders:
microbiology
Description:
Bacterial Growth and Control
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