Child Psychology Exam 1

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  1. What is child development?
    Changes that take place from conception through adolescence
  2. What is Nature?
    • Nativism
    • Heredity
    • Maturation
  3. Nurture
    • Environmentalist
    • Blank Slate
  4. Domains of Human Development
    • Biosocial
    • Cognitive
    • Psychosocial
  5. 4 major themes in child development
    • Nature and nurture
    • Role of neuroscience
    • Diversity & multiculturalism
    • Positive development & resilience
  6. 5 Major theories in child development
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Behavioral and social learning
    • Cognitive
    • Biological
    • Systems
  7. What do psychoanalytic theories focus on?
    Structure of personality and how conscious and unconscious thoughts influence behavior and development
  8. 2 psychoanalytic theorists
    • Freud
    • Erikson
  9. Freud's theory
    • Id: primitive instincts, completely unconscious
    • Ego: rational thought
    • Superego: ethics, morals, conscience
  10. Freud's 5 stages of psychosexual development
    • Oral 0-1
    • Anal 1-3
    • Phallic 3-6
    • Latency 6-11
    • Genital 11-adulthood
  11. Erikson's theory
    Psychosocial theory: focused more on healthy child development
  12. Erikson's 8 stages of psychosocial development
    • Trust - mistrust: feeding (0-1)
    • Autonomy - shame & doubt: toilet training (1-3) 
    • Initiative - guilt: exploration (3-6)
    • Industry - inferiority: school (6-11)
    • Identity - identity confusion: social relationships (adolescence)
    • Intimacy - isolation: relationships
    • Generativity - stagnation: work & parenthood
    • Integrity - despair: reflection on life
  13. What do behavioral theories focus on?
    • Observable conditions and behaviors
    • Development comes from learning
    • Importance of environment
    • Measurable
  14. 3 behavioral theorists
    • Watson
    • Skinner
    • Bandura
  15. Pavlov's theory
    Classical conditioning with dogs
  16. Watson's theory
    Little Albert experiment (conditioning)
  17. Skinner's theory
    Operant conditioning: learning comes from reinforcement and punishment
  18. Bandura's theory
    • Social learning theory: children learn by observing and imitating
    • Bobo doll
  19. What do cognitive theories focus on?
    Focus on how children adjust their own understanding as they explore the world; how their thinking impacts their actions
  20. 2 cognitive theorists
    • Piaget
    • Vygotsky
  21. Piaget's theory
    • Sensorimotor (0-2) Object permanence, symbols
    • Preoperational (2-6) Egocentrism, symbolic thought (language, no logic)
    • Concrete operational (6-11) apply logic conservation
    • Formal operational (12+) abstract, hypothetical
  22. Vygotsky's theory
    Sociocultural theory: language is powerful tool
  23. What is information processing?
    How children perceive, store, and retrieve information
  24. What do biological theories/ ethology focus on?
    Adaptive and survival value of behaviors
  25. 2 biological theorists
    • Darwin
    • Lorenz
  26. Lorenz's theory
    Imprinting: critical period begins last trimester
  27. Bronfenbrenner's theory
    • Importance of culture and changing social environments
    • 3 components: Person, context of behavior, processes of change
  28. 3 research designs
    • Descriptive
    • Correlational
    • Experimental
  29. What is descriptive research?
    Attempt to describe behavior with observations, questionnaires, case studies...
  30. What is correlational research?
    Attempt to determine the strength of a relationship between two behaviors
  31. What is experimental research?
    • Experimental group: receives treatment
    • Control group: no treatment
  32. What is a Genotype?
    Genetic potential that a person in herits
  33. What is a Phenotype?
    A person's observable characteristics and behavior
  34. What are Gametes?
    Egg and sperm
  35. What are Genes?
    Basic units of heredity
  36. What are Chromosomes?
    Larger units of genes
  37. What are Alleles?
    Different forms of a gene
  38. What is the Human genome?
    Entire set of genes
  39. What is Mitosis?
    • Genetic material within the cell duplicates itself to make 2 identical copies
    • Copy division
  40. What is Meiosis?
    • One chromosome from each pair is randomly selected for each egg and sperm
    • Results in 23 single chromosomes
    • Reduction division
  41. What are Automsomes?
    • 22 of the paired chromosomes are similar
    • Not a sex chromosome
  42. What is a Karyotype?
    Pictorial representation of an individual's chromosomes
  43. What are Monozygotic twins (MZ)?
    • Identical twins
    • 1 zygote divides
  44. What are Dizygotic twins (DZ)?
    • Fraternal twins
    • 2 eggs fertilized by 2 different sperm
  45. What are Half-identical twins?
    1 egg divides and is fertilized by 2 differed sperm
  46. What is Homozygous?
    2 alleles of a gene are identical
  47. What is Heterozygous?
    2 alleles of a gene are different
  48. What is Polygenic?
    Traits determined by more than one gene
  49. What are Dominant-recessive relationships?
    2 recessive alleles
  50. What are Dominant gene diseases?
    Only 1 dominant allele
  51. What are Recessive gene diseases?
    2 recessive alleles
  52. What are Mutations?
    Changes in genetic material
  53. 3 Gene disorders
    • Huntington's disease: dominant gene.
    • Sickle cell anemia and PKU: 2 recessive alleles.
    • Fragile X syndrome: associated with genes on the twenty-third pair of chromosomes.
  54. What is a Chromosome disorder/ abnormality?
    Down's syndrome or Trisomy 21, an extra 21st chromosome
  55. 2 Sex chromosome abnormalities
    • Klinefelter syndrome: extra X chromosome
    • Turner syndrome: missing X chromosome
  56. 4 theoretical models of genes and environment working together
    • Range of reaction
    • Canalization
    • Genetic-environment correlation
    • Epigenesis
  57. Theorist of Range of Reaction
    Gottesman
  58. Theorist of Canalization
    Waddington
  59. Theorist of Genetic-environmental correlation
    Plomin
  60. Theorist of Epigenesis
    Gottlieb
  61. What is the Gene-environment correlation Theory?
    Genes and environments aren't independent from one another
  62. What is the Epigenesis Theory?
    Behavioral outcome depends on genes that must be activated by life experiences
  63. How is heritability estimated?
    • Twin studies
    • Adoption studies
  64. 3 stages of prenatal development
    • Germinal
    • Embryonic
    • Fetal
  65. Age in Germinal stage
    0-2 weeks
  66. Age in Embryonic stage
    2-8 weeks
  67. Age in Fetal stage
    9-40 weeks
  68. What happens during Germinal stage?
    • Zygote travels from fallopian tube to uterus
    • Differentiation into two layers- trophoblast & blastocyst
    • Zygot implants in uterine wall
  69. What is Trophoblast?
    Outer layer becomes placenta, amniotic sack, and umbilical cord
  70. What is Blastocyst?
    Inner layer becomes fetus
  71. What happens during Embryonic stage?
    • Blastocyst becomes ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
    • Embryo folds over
  72. What happens during the Fetal stage?
    • Reflexes appear
    • Fat develops
    • Lungs mature
    • Birth
  73. What is a teratogen?
    • Substance that disrupts development and causes birth defects
    • Drugs, disease, environmental exposure
  74. Other factors that impact fetus
    • Age
    • Malnutrition
    • Stress
    • Drugs
    • Diseases
    • Environmental hazards
  75. 3 stages of birth
    • Dilation: contractions
    • Delivery: baby comes
    • Afterbirth: placenta
  76. 2 birth complications
    • Malpresentation: may do a C section
    • Fetal distress: no oxygen
  77. What is used to assess the baby after birth?
    Apgar Scale
  78. 3 parts of gene-environment correlation theory
    • Passive
    • Evocative
    • Active (niche-picking)

Card Set Information

Author:
Luimi
ID:
315995
Filename:
Child Psychology Exam 1
Updated:
2016-02-16 21:57:26
Tags:
psychology
Folders:
psychology
Description:
Test one concepts
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