Anatomy Intro: Notes pages 1-4

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cdf2020
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31601
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Anatomy Intro: Notes pages 1-4
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2010-08-28 16:05:26
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anatomy cells atoms bond tissue organs
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  1. Anatomy
    means to "cut up" in Greek; the form of the human body
  2. Name two types of anatomy
    • 1. Macroscopic anatomy-large
    • 2. microscopic anatomy
    • *Gross, regional, systemic, surface, and developmental
  3. Physiology
    Greek for "the study of nature"; the function of the human body
  4. Together Anatomy and Physiology=
    form and function
  5. Structure often dictates what?
    Function
  6. What is homeostasis?
    Maintaining a constant internal environment
  7. What is another definition of homeostasis?
    a state of body equilibruim
  8. How is homeostasis maintained?
    through feedback mechanisms
  9. What are feedback mechanisms?
    when there is an adjustment that a person makes in the present affect the future status of the body.
  10. Give one example of homeostasis.
    body temperature of 98.6 F
  11. Define Negative Feedback Mechanism.
    response is opposite the stimulus or when the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity.
  12. Which is the most common feedback mechanism: positive or negative?
    Negative
  13. What is a positive feedback mechanism?
    when the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated
  14. Give an example of a negative feedback mechanism.
    The response of lowering body temperature when the temperature outside the body increases. We do this by sweatign and by dermal blood vessels dilating causing heat to radiate out.
  15. Name an example of positive feedback mechanism.
    The pressure of the baby on a woman's cervix stimulates release of oxytocin hormone from the pituitary gland which stimulates uterine contractions, which brings the baby further down and giving more pressure on the cervix, continuing the cycle until birth.
  16. What are the basic units of all matter?
    atom
  17. At what structural level of organization do atom exist?
    chemical level
  18. What are the smallest units of life?
    cells, exist at the cellular level
  19. Two or more atoms put together is called what?
    A molecule or compound
  20. Can a molecule be changed?
    No a molecule is fixed.
  21. Name several common atoms:
    C-Carbon, H-Hydrogen, O-Oxygen, N-Nitrogen, P-Phosphorus, Na-Sodium, Ca-Calcium, K-Potassium
  22. Define tissue.
    Are made up of many similar cells that perform a specific function.
  23. Name the 4 types of tissue.
    epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
  24. What is epithelial tissue?
    it covers body surfaces and lines its cavities. ex. skin, stomach, esophagus, blood vessels
  25. What is connective tissue?
    supports and protects body organs
  26. What is muscle tissue?
    Tissue that provides movement.
  27. Name the different types of muscle tissue.
    skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
  28. Where are skeletal muscles found and is it voluntary?
    • found in the limbs, trunk, face; attaches to the body's skeleton, muscle is composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations.
    • Voluntary
  29. Where are the smooth muscles found? Voluntary?
    • found in the digestive tract, respiratory tract, eyes, blood vessels, uterus;found mainly in the walls of hollow organs, spindle shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus and no externally visible striations.
    • Involuntary
  30. Where are cardiac muscles? involuntary?
    in the heart; involuntary
  31. Define nervous tissue? involuntary?
    provides a means of rapid communication by transmitting electrical impulses; involuntary.
  32. Define organ
    a collectin of two or more kinds of tissues that work together to perform a specific function. Es. stomach- contains all four tissue types.
  33. Define organ system.
    a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. Ex. digestive- mouth to anus.
  34. Define Organism-
    total of all structural levels working together to promote life.

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