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What does Anatomy study?
Internal and external structures
What is the study of Physiology study?
- (There is always a link between structure and function)
What defines function? What defines specific functions?
- Specific structure
What is the function of the nasal cavity?
filters, warms, humidifies air
What is the purpose of the ventricular septum?
Seperates deoxygeniated blood from oxygeniated blood
The link between structure and function is always present.
A change in structure will result in a change in what?
A change of function.
Each organ within each organ system relies on the proper functioning of what?
Cells and tissue of which it is made.
On the microscopic level what are we looking at?
cystology and histology
On the macroscopic or gross level what are we looking at?
surface, regional and systemic
What are the simpliest forms of organization?
- Organ system
Defne the Chemical level?
- Simpliest level of structural organization
- atoms: H,C,O,N
- Molecules, compounds and proteins, Carbs.
A cell is smallest units of living things
- Groups of similar cells that have a common function
- (part of an organ)
Define organ? Give examples
- structure composed of two or more tissue types acting as a unit to perform a specific function.
- Heart, brain
Define organ system? Give examples
- Two or more organs working closely together to accomplish a common purpose.
- Digestive, cardiovascular
All organ systems working together to promote life
Give examples of how each level of organization is totally dependent on the others?
- Adjacent muscle cells of cardiac tissue must contract to produce a heart beat so the heart can
- push blood through the cardiovascular system
What factors will have an effect on the organ system/organism/all components?
- A change in chemistry of the cell, damage to a tissue, an abnormality in an organ
- Dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance, in which the
- internal conditions vary, but always within relatively narrow limits.
What does a failure to maintain Homeostasis constitute?
Death and disorders
What are the conditions/variable (factors) controlled by homeostasis?
- levels of gases in blood, body temperature, blood pressure,
- heart rate, pH of blood, blood glucose, fluid volume;
- pH of digestive system; calcium in blood
The concept of homeostasis is the major foundation for what field?
Medical diagnosis (blood work)
What is the ph of the blood?
How does the body communicate?
The body communicates through the nervous and endocrine (hormonal) control systems
Name the 3 components of homeostatic control?
- Control center
What is the function of the Receptor?
- •Responds to changes
- in the environment (stimuli)
- •Sends information to
- control center
What is the function of the Control Center?
- •Determines set point
- •Analyzes information
- appropriate response
What is the function of the Effector?
- •Provides a means for
- response to the stimulus
What is the function of Negative feedback?
- •Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity
- •Controls all variables that require frequent monitoring and adjustment
- •Prevents sudden and severe changes within the body
- (Deviation from the normal range is made smaller)
- (Works like a household thermostat)
What is the function of Positive feedback? What are the two exception in the body?
- •Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther – exaggerates or enhances
- •DO NOT promote well being
- Blood clotting
- Birth of a baby
Explain homeostatsis of blood clotting? What is it a function of?
- (A positive feedback system)
- Vessel damage (cut).
- Platelets swell, develop spikes and cling to injured site and release chemicals
- that attract more platelets
- This pile up of platelets finally forms a clot
Define labor as a function of the positive feedback system?
- The hormone oxytocin enhances muscular
- contractions of the pregnant uterus (controlled condition)
- When labor begins, the uterus is stretched (stimulus) and nerve cells send nerve impulses (input) to
- the brain (control center). The brain responds causing the release of more oxytocin
- (output).Oxytocin stimulates the muscles of the uterus to contract even more Further
- stretching occurs as the baby’s head moves down the birth canal
- The cycle is broken by the birth of the baby which decreases uterine stretching and
- ends the release of oxytocin
Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding. What are exact
terms are used for?
- (always from the anatomical position)
Define the orientation and directional term, Superior?
- Toward the head end or upper part of the structure or the body above.
- (the forehead is superior to the nose)
Define the orientation and direction term, Inferior?
- Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.
- (the navel is inferior to the breastbone)
Define the orientation and directional term, Anterior?
- Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
- (the breast bone is anterior to the spine)
Define the orientation and directional term, posterior?
- Toward or at the backside of the body; behind
- (the heart is posterior to the breast bone)
Define the orientation and directional term, medial?
- Toward or at the midline of the body; at the innner side of
- (the heart is medial to the arm)
Define the orietation the directional term, Lateral?
- Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
- (the arms are lateral to the chest)
Define the orientation and directional term, Intermediate?
- Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
- (the armpit is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder)
Define the orientation and directional term, Proximal?
- Close to the origin of the body part of point of attachment of a limb to the trunk of the body
- (the elbow is proximal to the wrist)
Define the orientation and directional term, Distal?
- Farthur from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
- (the knee is distal to the thigh)
Define the orientation and directional term, Superficial?
- Toward or at the body surface
- (the skin is superficial to the skeleton)
Define the orientation and directional term, Deep?
- Away from the body surface; more internal
- (the lungs are deep to the ribcage)
Define and name the planes of section?
- Imaginary lines of sections or cuts.
- Median (midsagittal)
- Frontal (coronal plane)
- Transverse plane
Organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems are housed in what?
The ventral body cavity.
What seperates the ventral body cavity? Name the parts of this system?
- The diaphragm
The ventral body cavity is protected and lubricated by a two-layer membrane system called what?
What is another name for the ventral body cavitiy? What is it's function?
- Provides protection
- Allows organ movement
- Lining prevents friction
Name the two sections divided by the diaphragm?
- Thoracic cavity
- Abdominopelvic cavity
Name the cavities the Thoracic cavity is subdivided into? What do they house?
- Right plueral cavity; surrounds right lung
- Mediastinum; contains the trachea, esophagus and major vessles. Also contains the Pericardial cavity; surrounds the heart
- Left plueral cavity; surrounds the left lung
The abdominopelvic cavity contains what cavity and is further subdivided into what cavities? What do they house?
- The peritoneal cavity includes the;
- Abdomianl cavity; contains digestive glands and organs
- Pelvic cavity; contains urniary bladder, reproductive organs, the last portion of the digestive tract
Epithelia and connective tissues combine what?
Name the four membranes?
Describe the mucous membrane?
Line passageways that communicate with exterior
Describe the serous membrane?
- Line ventral body cavities (pleural, peritoneum, pericardium)
- transparent, thin, prevents friction
What is the cutaneous membrane/
What is the Synovial membrane?
Describe the Serous membrane. What is the function of the Serous membrane?
- Thin, transparent -simple squamous epithelium + areolar
- Attached to body wall & organs they cover – ventral body cavity
- Minimize friction
- Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body
Name the three serous memebranes?